English version

Origins and cultural identity

Signa, a community nestled between rivers, lakes and cultivated fields, seems to emerge from the ancient lake basin of Florence as an island of residual natural and artistic beauty, reflecting its role as a crossroads nerve done for centuries. Both the Arno that the bridge that crosses it, along with the proximity to the city of Florence, are in fact the main elements around which is built the city's identity. Not by chance in the arms of the City of Signa appear a river crossed by a bridge undisputed symbols of the events and spirit of the city's population Signa, devoted to trade, exchange and dissemination of their traditions, jealously guarded and handed down from generation to generation. Signa, who takes a careful look at its territory, in fact not only offers natural beauty as its many lakes, including that of the emerges Renai, or its hills covered with olive groves and vineyards, but also gives a rich repertoire of traditions and historical traditions and popular that every year come to life in festivals, celebrations and ceremonies, both religious and secular. The richness of these customs and traditions is surely attributable to its ancient origins. Its origin is to be traced back to very ancient origin, possibly Etruscan, although the first official document which speaks of Signa dates back to 964, and the donation of Pieve di Signa in Chapter Florentine by Raimbaut, bishop of Florence . As already mentioned, its events are closely intertwined with those of Florence: the proximity to the Tuscan capital, initially for clergy and religious reasons and later for strategic and commercial reasons, has characterized almost to the present day the history of Signa. Beginning in the battle for the possession of its territory between the Abbey and the powerful city of Florence in the twenties of 1200, resulting in victory for the city of Florence, the events between Guelphs and Ghibellines, the refusal of the militia Visconti in 1397 (episode that relives every year in commemoration of the September Festival), until the return of the Medici in Florence, Signa has always been at the center of economic and cultural life of the province of Florence, keeping the centuries and administrative autonomy statute - a testament to its importance - until the reform introduced by Grand Duke Pietro Leopoldo in the seventies of the eighteenth century, when Signa lost its independence, and was merged into the community of Fields. Moreover, the suppression of the administration Signa certainly could not erase the feeling of strong identity settled in the minds of its citizens, but rather served to reinforce it: it is testament to its short duration, since only from 1774 to 1808, when in Tuscany annexed to the Napoleonic Signa returned as being home to an autonomous administration. The traces of this history full of suggestions and references to religious and political, it's all carved in the town of Signa, starting with its castle, until the Churches and the churches - Santa Maria, San Lorenzo, San Giovanni - with their artistic heritage pictorial and architectural, which in any season, at various times of the year, once again heat up in the celebrations of the historical towns and thrilling experience to both residents and tourists, more and more, head to this location not far from the usual tourist routes the capital Florence.

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The Castle

Surely the Castle of Signa is the heart of the community, not only for geographical centrality that covers - rising in the highest part of the country, on the right bank of the Arno - but especially for the symbolic centrality that embodies the identity of every citizen Signa . The Castle is in fact the original place of the community, the nucleus from which every human and historical began, and still lives a life of intense and hard-working. It is home to various business activities and crafts, but especially of a dense network of housing - often built on the ruins of the ancient city walls and towers - that, despite the rebuilding and restoration occurred in the course of the centuries, still offer today the charm of their medieval origins. To get an idea of its original layout just look at the frescoes of the Master of Signa made in 1462 in the parish of St. John the Baptist, another symbol of the community Signa. In these is depicted surrounded by impressive walls with high towers. Today, these walls, doors and mighty towers, were numerous tracks, but only a keen eye may be able to understand and decipher. But the decoding of this landscape of memory, so full of echoes and ancient citations, makes it even more fascinating path of whoever is preparing to climb the narrow streets of the Castle, beginning its journey from Street Dante Alighieri, to cross the winding streets within the walls, then dropped away from the clock and from there continue on his journey to discover the treasures of Signa.

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The tabernacles

The feeling of deep devotion which gave rise to the cult of the Blessed Giovanna, in the fifteenth century was still visible through the streets of the town of the same Signa, in the many shrines that adorned the walls or corners of the houses that looked along the busier roads . The largest of those is left to us by the Master of Signa, painted around the middle of the fifteenth century on the edge of a house located along the road connecting the castle to the village of San Miniato. It depicted the Madonna and Child surrounded by angels and honored by San Miniato and San Giovanni Battista, owners of the nearby churches. He is currently placed in the Church of San Lorenzo, after the restoration in 1995. The same scene of the Madonna and Child with Saints in the tabernacle was repeated with frescoes by Domenico di Michelino, a follower of Fra Angelico, in a niche located along Street of the Ivy, and is also dated around 1465. Always cross street of the Ivy and Street de 'Berti was instead seen another great tabernacle, now sadly reduced to only one ocher, painted at the end of the fifteenth century, also depicting the Madonna and Child Enthroned flanked by two saints.

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The architecture and religious painting

The fact that in the Middle Ages Signa holding the exposures a role of primary importance as a place of strategic importance both from a military point of view that trade is not only demonstrated by the presence of the castle on the hills overlooking the Arno river. At the end of the thirteenth century, in fact, the ancient plover of Signa was made up of fourteen nations - each with its own church - distributed on both banks of the Arno. Of this fervent religiosity remain traces in the many churches and churches in the city. Even today, the churches, around which over the centuries had developed the urban fabric of the country, they rank among the most important architectural work in the territory of Signa. Church of San Lorenzo The church of San Lorenzo, located outside the ancient city walls, seems to be built on the remains of an ancient burial site dating back to a period prior to the seventh century. It was donated in 964, together with the church of St. John the Baptist, Bishop Raimbaut Chapter Florence. A semi-circular stone staircase leads to the porch which gives access to the church, which is dominated by the image of St. Christopher, fresco of the Florentine school of the late thirteenth century. The bell tower of Romanesque origin, a square, and the top has elegant mullioned windows. The interior has a Latin cross, it develops into a nave decorated with frescoes. The transept is raised above the floor of the nave, and ends in a semicircular apse characterized by a large central arch. In addition to the important remains of the thirteenth-century frescoes that adorn the walls of the nave and the apse, the church also contains several valuable paintings, among which large altarpieces. The middle of the Annunciation and is the work of John Navesi. The paintings of the left and right, respectively depicting the Madonna and Child Enthroned with the Virgin in Glory with St. John the Evangelist, Saint Lucia and the Blessed Joan, are the work of Bernardino Monaldi and the Senese Pietro Sorri. In the church there is also a wooden case that received the mortal remains of the Blessed Giovanna, the more fervently religious figure revered by the citizens of Signa, the subject of a fervent local cult survived until our days. The case, reminiscent of the contemporary examples of private and domestic destination, was painted in 1438 by Pietro di Chellino from Gambassi. Pieve San Giovanni Closely related to San Lorenzo is the church of San Giovanni Battista. This church was donated to the Florentine Chapter 964 in July along with the parish church of San Lorenzo. For the inhabitants of Signa this church is particularly important because at its core, in a chapel built specially on the right side of the church, was buried the Blessed Giovanna. The presence of the sacred relics of the Blessed, who died in 1307, was probably the origin of blurring the prestige of the old parish church of San Lorenzo and also because of the many architectural transformations of St. John, the last of which dates back to 1949, to result of injuries inflicted by World War II. The size of the early church were in fact considerably smaller than today's, and it was the growing affluence of the devotees of the Blessed Giovanna in determining the need for an extension. During the first two decades of the sixteenth century, the small chapel of the Blessed was even included in the body of the church through the erection of a fourth aisle. Currently, the church has three naves as it should appear in origin, it overlooks a large square, the heart of the town center. Leaning against the right side of the church is the cloister, whose original structure no traces remain valuable, because of the numerous restoration succeeded at various times, with the exception of a Romanesque capital, dating tea the X and XI century. Inside the church, in the chapel dedicated to the Blessed, it preserves an important cycle of frescoes depicting episodes from the life of Blessed Giovanna, the work of two different artists. The scenes on the left wall are attributed to the so-called Master of 1441, anonymous painter certainly gravitating around Bicci di Lorenzo, which owes its name to the date written below stories. His narrative skill, even within a certain archaic view, it is in line with the general trend of Florentine painting of the first half of the fifteenth century. On the right wall is rather active in 1462 the Master of Signa. He also shows a close relationship with the workshop of Bicci and a lively narrative, but, like its predecessor, despite the creation of elaborate architectural backgrounds, still reveals some difficulty in giving them a real spatial consistency. In the Castle of Signa, inside the medieval village, there are two other important churches, the church of Santa Maria in Castello and the church of San Miniato. Church of Santa Maria in Castello The church of Santa Maria in Castello know very little about its origins. Even assuming the existence of the church as early as the seventh century, we only know for sure that in 978 the Countess Willa, mother of Hugh Marquis of Tuscany, it was a gift to the Badia Fiorentina, which she founded in the same year. The destruction of the castle, which took place in 1326 by the troops of Castruccio Castracani, we do not know how many and which adversely harm the church. Currently, the exterior looks with a simple stone wall surface, while the interior has a single nave. The current appearance is due to the renovation work carried out between 1803 and 1816 by the prior Gaetano Giannini, who is responsible for the renewal of the altars of the church and the acquisition of at least two of the four paintings that adorn them, Christ displaying his wounds to St. Bernard of Clairvaux, eighteenth-century copy of the original by Jacopo Vignali, and a large painting of the Adoration of the Magi by Sigismund Coccapani. In the church are the remains of an important cycle of frescoes, whose high pictorial quality has meant that in the past were attributed to Cimabue, in addition to works by Lorenzo Monaco and the Master of Signa. Church San Miniato The church of San Miniato do not know the date of foundation, even if you also have existed before 1000. The oldest documents date back to 1243 and 1224, however. The location of the church, located at the foot of the hill which faces Signa and on an extensive campaign suggests that it is built as a private church, probably at the behest of the Vespucci family, as confirmed by the coat of arms adorns the pediment of the entrance portal Consecrated in 1684 by Bishop Morigia, Archbishop of Florence, San Miniato became a priory in 1745, the period to which was a radical restoration that would have given its current appearance. The church has a simple facade outside the center of which there is a single portal surmounted by a broken pediment in stone and decorated with the coat of arms of the Vespucci family. The interior has a single nave, contains a beautiful organ, dated 1795, built by the organ builders of Pistoia and a series of paintings of great value. Finally, to remember that within the church is buried Domenico Michelacci, who during the eighteenth century gave impetus to the development of the straw industry, an activity that has played a key role in the economic development of Signa, at least until the second war world. These churches are part of the Museum of Sacred Art of Signa and over the following ones: Church of San Mauro A Signa Church of Sant'Angelo a Lecore Church of St. Peter in Lecore Tabernacles all included in the City of Signa

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The Feast of the Blessed Giovanna and the Historical Procession

A Signa Giovanna, virgin and hermit lived between the end of the '200 and early '300, is still simply and familiarly referred to as "the Blessed", and celebration "of the Blessed" is one of the most important religious dell ' year. The oldest biography of Blessed is dated between 1383 and 1396, the Beatae Johannae et miracula. The manuscript is rather stingy with news, and after a brief introduction on the place of birth of the Blessed near the Castle of Signa, immediately introduces the first miracle occurred when Joan still little girl tending the sheep and oxen, and in the middle of a sudden storm rain, about Joan and shepherds gathered around her, not even a drop of water fell. Immediately after this incident the writer tells how Joan fourteenth century, still young, he chose the life of a hermit in a hermitage closing. In this place of seclusion, identified with the place where the first then a small oratory called "the Beatino," Joan lived several years working miraculous cures to the devotees who came to her. Prodigious events also occurred after his death for the benefit of those who implored thanks before his tomb. Most likely the life of the Blessed and the birth of his worship are closely linked to repeated waves of plague that afflicted the fourteenth century, just remember to confirm this hypothesis that the festivities in honor of the Blessed began as early as 1383. During these celebrations, Easter Monday, and is still commemorated in which we commemorate the year of the first translation or rather elevation of his relics, a large procession of pilgrims, devotees and religious recalls with a procession composed of about 400 participants, the annual procession in honor of the Blessed. To promote the event is the Worshipful Company of the Blessed Sacrament and the Holy Spirit and the Historical Procession of Signa. It takes place following an ancient tradition: the protagonists of the procession are the four peoples that had divided Signa in the Middle Ages - Santa Maria in Castello, San Miniato, St. John and St. Lawrence - and at the end of the parade they receive the blessing from the parish priest of Signa, in the name of the Blessed. In the past, all the churches, or neighboring parishes participated in the ceremony by sending each their own "little angels" on a donkey - that very young children - bearing in his hand a sparrow, which was then released in the Parish of St. John, thus fulfilling a function prediction for the year. The presence of the angel and the sparrows recalls two miracles attributed to Blessed, that of the resurrection of a child and the healing of a sparrow.

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The Fiera di Signa and the Palio of the Archers of the Peoples of Signa

Always a Signa, starting from the first week of September, there is another event of great tourist attraction, which is reminiscent of a historical event important for the community Signa, Signa siege to the castle by the troops of Gian Galeazzo Visconti and the subsequent rejection of the militias, which took place in 1397. The siege of the Castle of Signa was an episode of the war that began in 1396: in March 1397 the troops of the Visconti allocated nell'alleata Siena intrapesero raid in the Florentine countryside led by Count Alberigo, reaching a Signa, who unsuccessfully besieged for two days (24 and 25 March). Fires from the tower. The refusal of the militia Visconti was therefore a source of pride to the community, which provided to perpetuate his memory for as long as possible. During the fair in September, on the occasion of the commemoration of this historical episode medieval Castle Signa back to life, bustling with people, sounds, music and color. The narrow streets of the castle come alive in fact, markets and stalls selling handicrafts, artifacts and food stands, while ancient jugglers, actors and extras - dressed in the medieval fashion - walk the historical center dragging locals and visitors back in time, at the time in which the castle was the central hub of the life of the town. Also within the walls of the Castle is held on a scenic medieval banquet, where food is served in use at the time, and ends with the burning of the Tower of the north, in memory of the rejection of the militias, impressive fireworks display, in which the Tower is colored lights and the colors of the fireworks against the background of the late summer night. During the Fair also the historical procession accompanying the remains of the Blessed the day of Easter Monday is back, parading through the streets of the Castle and accompanying competitors of the Palio of the Archers of the Peoples of Signa. Fire TorreAnche this event, the historic character whilst not actually recalling similar events held in the past, costitusce an important time of the Fair. It aims to recall the old rivalries between the four peoples that was once divided Signa. To the people who with his archers won the race, the Palio is assigned and the honor of adorning the donkey with their own colors at the next Feast of Blessed Joan, as well as the right of way in the parade of the historical parade during the the same party. During the parade are the Alfieri to carry the flag or insignia, representative of his people: the flag of Santa Maria in Castello is on a white field, dominated by a Grand Fiera of Signa lily blue, silver and purple surrounded by lists made with Marian symbols , in honor of the Virgin Protectress of this people. That of San Lorenzo is in black and green field, dominated by a diagonally grill silver, symbol of the holy martyr remembered by these people. The flag of San Miniato is sormounted instead by a ring pierced by a sword, in memory of the martyrdom of Saint Florentine, a black field. Finally, one of San Giovanni is dominated by a large red cross on a white field. On the sides there are waves, symbolizing the waters of baptism and, in a shield, the crux of the Baptist populi.

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Signa: History did not know

The Pro Loco of Signa has among its main tasks is to promote the area in all its forms, artistic, cultural, environmental, natural and traditions of the area. It is therefore felt the need to review what has been written about the history of the town of Signa, characters who were born there, on those who have brought up the name of Signa in the world, of those who have stayed and those you are dead and buried. From this painstaking research revealed that the story found in the few books in circulation is not complete, that most of the characters is not transcribed in full, (if not the majority was aware of it). The reasons we can give to this incompleteness are to be found from the influence of Florence than its 'countryside'. The figure of the capital annihilates the neighboring cities, as most historians have focused exclusively on the history of the city of Florence. The incompleteness is also due to the loss of documents dating back to before 1000 and in the next six centuries or so, as wars, fires of the Castle of Signa, various diseases and floods have gone largely lost. Another motivation is also linked to the lack of real historians signesi brought to transcribe what was happening in our area. For this reason, in proposing a concise history which tell, that it is somewhat different than that transcribed so far, we have not done is insert elements of doubt, new certified and all the new characters that research has given rise to bring them all 'citizens' attention signesi, for you to take awareness of what were our ancestors and that, in some way, Florence has become one of the most famous cities in the world thanks to the town of Signa, its people, its traditions, his findings. The assistance which signesi of good will who have something to say about the topics that will be narrated are welcome, provided only that you will want to add or correct certificates are true and documented by research, and the Scientific Committee which operates within the Pro Loco, insert these new innovations within the site. To better summarize the work done is transcribed below how did the research and how this was applied in transcribing it: 1. From the lake to the Florentine plain "Stone Gonfolina" 2. Who broke the dam of the Gonfolina and was born as Florence and its suburbs; 3. Signa: Etruscan or Roman origin; 4. Why the early seventh century there was a castle, and three churches; 5. Because at the end of the ninth century churches and the castle was donated to the Florentine Chapter 6. What family was head of the Castle of the Signa 7. Why Signa was named 8. What families originated in Signa and that, in part, have made the history of Florence; 9. Why the wealthy nobles of the territory moved to Florence, remain the owners of their land in the countryside of Signa, 10. Why the wealthy nobles of Florence came to buy land there and built a Signa Villas 11. Why Dante always speaks ill of Signa and its characters; 12. How ever the construction of a bridge; 13. When did the City of Gangalandi? And what of Lastra? 14. Because the people of Signa was always relieved by the disasters and / or economic crises; 15. Yellow and blue are the colors that represent Signa? 16. What new characters are part of the History of Signa and because we were not aware of: To all these questions, on which we have already certified answers, we will by the end of 2012 to give definite answers looking in the various Archives of various civil institutions, private and religious. The research carried out by the Scientific Committee was made exclusively on Internet sites certified, of books about the history of Signa and books of famous historical figures such as Repetti, Manni, The Davildshon, Villani, Capponi, Ademollo, and Passerini many others that we are not to appoint. As expressed above, simply click on the topic where it is shown if the page is under construction or not. Wishing you good reading we also expect some suggestion combined with the hope of having offered hints of interest in the area where you live. It is emphasized that the entire research was sent to the SIAE as "unpublished work" and therefore warns that anyone who wanted to reproduce this work will be pursued for legal protection of authors and the Pro Loco of Signa.

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THE HISTORICAL PROCESSION OF SIGNA

THE HISTORICAL PROCESSION OF SIGNA The Historical Procession of Signa, in its current form, was born in 1971 at the hands of people who had and who care about the history, traditions and religious faith of our people of Signa, among which we like to remember the figure of the late Prime Marinelli, who was the inspiration and the initiator. Then it was decided to commemorate the visit, which took place in 1720, for the Feast of the Pentecost, the Princess of Tuscany Violante Beatrice of Bavaria, wife of Ferdinando I de 'Medici, and Eleonora Princess of Guastalla, widow of Francis Marian Serene Prince, who came a Signa to participate in the procession to the transfer of the body of the Blessed Giovanna and by venerating the remains. They were then created the costumes faithful at that time that it was intended to evoke, princes, princesses, pages, but the procession was composed mainly of children and young people of both sexes, without adults. But in 1988 it was decided to recall, however, the procession took place in 1385 on the occasion of the translation of his body, and he began to create new costumes pertaining to this period, thinking this time to engage, as well as children and young people of both sexes, even adults. And this choice has been a great success: today, the parades of the Historical Parade, participating families. The Historical Parade is made possible thanks to the work and commitment of many residents constant, and has now assumed considerable proportions. Its composition is a maximum of about 300 people, but backs off and he marched with setups as reduced (about 100 people), or even minimal (about 30-50 people) and you may well show what ideal frame for opening ceremonies , in addition to the traditional parade historical. The rich costumes, all made by hand, using quality materials and are particularly suitable are the result of extensive research and accurate historical reconstructions, detected by paintings, drawings and frescoes from the first half of the fifteenth century, and are enriched with hairstyles and jeweler, weapons and friezes of the same era. II hard work of the Historical Parade The historical, realized thanks to the work and commitment of many residents constant, has today assumed considerable proportions, thus demonstrating a willingness to maturation and growth, harbingers of further developments. The costumes are the result of extensive research and accurate historical reconstructions, detected by paintings, drawings and frescoes from the first half of the fifteenth century, but also hard work and love on the part of citizens who give the best of themselves to the community. BeataGiovannaSigna4.jpg Thank you, and these people who are doing their utmost to make it more beautiful and varied Realizing the costumes, getting richer, and the weapons and accessories of the time, even drummr-boy, the Chiarinists. Archers and the Flag-wavers, they prepare all year with commitment and continuity and all the participants in the parades. We also thank anyone, in any way, contributed and still contribute to helping make the Historical Parade one of the city's most admired by all. Thank you, finally, the Worshipful Company of SS.mo Sacramento and the Holy Spirit, the Archaeological Group of Signa, the Pro Loco, the City of Signa, all civil authorities, religious and military, all companies, shops and citizens who with their contributions make it possible to support all the expenses otherwise insurmountable years, the local banks, among which we especially remember the Cooperative Credit Bank of Signa. THE FEAST OF THE BLESSED GIOVANNA The Feast of the Blessed Giovanna which takes place every year on Easter Monday in Signa, is one of the highest and opportunities perceived by the population of Signa. And 'This is perhaps the fact that most lends itself to a festive meeting of all the inhabitants of Signa, which always find their unity in the name of Blessed Joan, one of the most important figures of our local history. The Blessed Giovanna was born, according to some documentary sources, in 1266 a Signa, where he distinguished himself in prayer and contemplation. From every part of Tuscany evolved towards her various forms of popular veneration that, at their core, they arrived until today. II solemn procession which, with its own customs of the fifteenth century, recalls the procession on the occasion of the translation of his body, which occurred in 1385, is the form in which currently we remember our great compatriot, parade that is itself part of a religious procession. Its roots, so deeply rooted in the history, religion and tradition of our people to Signa. A centuries-old tradition Reenactment and religion go together hand in the events of Monday in Signa, giving rise to an initiative of considerable interest and showmanship. To promote the event is the Worshipful Company of the Blessed Sacrament and the Holy Spirit, born in 1348 as a Company of the Whites. Its origin is very ancient, dating back to the distant 1385 the first procession in honor of the Blessed, the patron saint of the city, established in the year 1385 on the occasion of the transfer of his remains. The Feast of the Blessed Giovanna, which takes place on Easter Monday in Signa, recalls with a parade made up of about 300 people in period costumes of the fifteenth century, who parade through the streets of Signa, the first procession in honor of the Blessed, perpetuating a centuries-old tradition, the characteristics of which have been shifting over time, but there's still a still strong popular participation. It has, however, lost its religious connotation, despite having acquired a precise historical dimension. Born in 1971 (after a first costume parade in 1946) as the only religious event, it has gradually increased its importance, increasing in size and enriched with related initiatives (such as the Banner of the Archers of the Peoples of Signa, during the Ancient September Festival , which sets the order of precedence of the four Peoples in the Parade) and has turned into a demonstration by the sensitive direction and the equally prepared script. The historical grew up with the country and has now become a show of great attraction. The historical parade opens with the Banner, escorted by the Halberdiers, followed by the Corps of Musicians, with its Drummer-boy and his Chiarinist but are followed by the 14 flags of the Minor Arts and the Arts More 7 flags (ie the ancient guilds of work of Renaissance Florence). Behind follow the Handmaids with flowers and votive lamp, each accompanied by two Pages. Then follows the urban district of the historical parade, escorted by two Page; behind, followed by the four Peoples that was once divided Signa: Santa Maria in Castle, San Miniato, St. John and St. Lawrence, each of which is composed of two leading Pages the shield with the sign of the People, by a bishop with the flags of their people, escorted by the Archers, a pair of Nobles, some couples with the Ladies of the Knights, from Damsels, from the Good Shepherd (in memory of the activity Blessed by a Signa and vicinity), and close by a servant carrying a jar with oil for the votive lamp, accompanied by two Pages. After the four Peoples, is the Banner, followed by the Herald that bears the Proclamation of the People, who was also accompanied by two Pages with the caskets. Follow the Damsels of the Body of Medieval Ball and then the Little Servants. Then follow the flag-waving, and, finally, the Handmaid with the key to the city. Then follows the Old City of Signa. It opens with the Captain of the People, escorted by Armed, followed then the Drummer-boy of the City, then comes the Banner with the insignia of the City, escorted by two Pennonieri; follow behind the mayor, the notary and the Camarlingo General. After the authorities, follows a representation of the Nine of the General Council of the Commune, and, in closing, the basis of the Armed. Next came the parish priest of Signa and the Worshipful Company of the Blessed Sacrament and the Holy Spirit, that of the Whites, and the little donkey on the back with a young child, dressed as a cherub. Arrived in the Square, the historical parade you have in front of the church of San Giovanni Battista, the place of the final ceremony, during which the Handmaids with the flowers, with the votive lamp and the jars with the oil for the latter, accompanied by Alfieri of Peoples with their insignia, by the Mayor, the Notary and the Camarlingo General, come to pay homage and lay their gifts to the urn of the Blessed: Bridesmaids then the Corps de Ballet Medieval perform in a dance in honor of the Blessed: then the Herald reads the Proclamation of the People and the parish priest of Signa imparts to all peoples and to all those present at the solemn blessing in the name of the Blessed Giovanna. At one time all the neighboring parishes participated in the ceremony each sending their little angels on a donkey, holding a bird (which was then released in Parish, thus fulfilling a function of prediction for the year). The presence of the angel and the sparrows is related to two miracles attributed to Blessed: the resurrection of a child and the healing of a sparrow. Today the procession involves only Signa and comes in Parish a single donkey, but the event is increasingly felt in the country and in the surrounding area, so as to revive the desire to return to these ancient traditions, which saw the participation of pastors and all the parishioners of the countryside. FOUR FLAGS FOR FOUR PEOPLE Signa, like all the most ancient cities, divided territorially in military and administrative Terzieri, Neighborhoods or Quarter, was formerly divided into four parts or Peoples: Santa Maria in Castle, San Lorenzo, San Miniato and San Giovanni. Peoples took its name from the main church that was inside each of them, and their Santo was elected as the protector of the people itself. In the procession are represented by Alfieri, each of which carries the flag (or sign) of its people. The flag of Santa Maria in Castle is on a white field, dominated by a large blue lily, is surrounded by lists made with silver and purple Marian symbols, in honor of the Virgin, the patron of this people. That of San Lorenzo is in black and green field, dominated by a diagonally grill silver, symbol of the Holy Martyr remembered by this people. The flag of San Miniato, however, is surmounted by a crown pierced by a sword in memory of the martyrdom of Saint Florentine, a black field, with the bottom of flaming orange. Finally, one of San Giovanni is dominated by a large red cross on a white field, the sides are of the waves, symbolizing the water of baptism, and, in a shield, the crux of the Baptist residents. PALIO OF THE ARCHERS OF THE PEOPLES OF SIGNA The Banner of the Archers of the Peoples of Signa, which takes place in Signa, in the course of the Ancient Fair of September, in the first week of the month, is one of institutional events organized by the Historical Parade. This event, from a purely historical, going back to some of the old rivalries between the four peoples that was once divided Signa, which have been handed down, with the memory, to the present day. It begins with a historical parade, starting from the Church of San Lorenzo, reaches, after having walked the streets of the Castle, the Ivy Garden, where the Banner of the Archers. Archers, previously awarded by a public drawing of lots by the Masters of the Field, one of the four Peoples, an equal number of people for each, are arranged on a line of fire, from which then popping their arrows in the direction of 3 different targets, then placed on the circular straw targets, placed at a distance of about 16 meters from the firing line. The shooting order of the Archers is determined by the ranking of Peoples in the race last year. Each archer will pull three volleys of six arrows each. For each arrow in the first volley hit the target of a saucer, the People for which pulls the Archer will be entitled to a point. For each arrow in the second volley hit the target of the shield inside the drilled hole, which pulls the People for the Archer will be entitled to a point. For each arrow in the third volleys hit the target disk holding tension in a headband, which is notched on one dart, and make the low dart upward, and only in this case, the People for which pulls the Archer will be entitled to five points. Every Damsel will pull two volleys of six rings each. For each link that will be inserted onto the nozzle at the base of the tower, the people that pull the Damsel will be entitled to a point. Each Pages will pull two volleys of six balls each. For each ball that will be inserted into the window in the center of the tower, the people that pull the Pages will be entitled to a point. In the event that an archer shoots more than six arrows or a Damsel shots over six rings or a Pageboy shots over six balls allowed per volleys, will be removed from the target many arrows, rings, or how much those balls pull in more, then will proceed to the count of the points of the volleys. The total score obtained from the Archers, from Damsels and Pages each of the four Peoples, at the end of the volleys of race, duly considered, will determine the ranking, whereby the Banner will be given to the people that received the highest score. At the end of the race, in case of a tie on points between Peoples, will be made a playoff with a volley of six arrows per archer of only Peoples in a tie, with the target of the shield drilled, until the winner is determined. The volleys of arrows shot in the playoff will be entitled to one point for every arrow to hit the target. The Damsels and Pages not participate in the play-off. To the people who with his archers, his Damsel and her Pageboy have won the race, the Banner will be assigned, and it will have the right and honor to adorn with their own colors the donkey in the historical procession for the Feast Blessed Joan of the following year and to parade the Banner won within their own people up to the race the following year. The Archers, the Damsel and the Pageboy who have helped to win the race to your people will be awarded a trophy. THE HISTORICAL PROCESSION OF SIGNA Imagine being in the Renaissance, Florence or in one of the towns of the county. Walking through the streets, around the corner, suddenly, you come across a procession. Or rather, they're already in the middle ... Well, this is the right atmosphere to be able to enjoy one of the many parades of the Historical Parade of Signa. Look at the symbols, civilian, military, administrative, power, Signa Renaissance: the Gonfalon, the Banner, the flags of Peoples, the flags of the Florentine Arts and Crafts, the colors that distinguish Nations. You see whole families of nobles or notables of Signa era: the aristocracy, and the noblewomen, their children, their Servants, and their attendants, their Dame, their Knights, their bridesmaids, their Pages. Admire the civil authorities of the Signa of the Renaissance: the mayor, the notary, the Camarlingo General, the Nine of the General Council of the Municipality, the representatives of all the Arts and Crafts. Appreciate the military authorities Signa Renaissance: the Captain of the People, the Ensigns, the Halberdiers, the Archers, the Armed, the Pennonieri, the Drummer-boy and Chiarinist. Discover the religious authorities of Signa since then: the parish priest, the priests of the parishes that had formed part of the parish church and the Companies or religious confraternities of tempo.corteostorico.jpg And enjoy, in all the figures of the time, the rich and beautiful costumes, handcrafted as then, with an infinite number of colors, designs, patterns, features of, strictly vintage, in their faces, in their behaviors, their customs, their shoes, their hairstyles and their costume jewelry in their arms and in their friezes ... there n 'is of equal ... and the ancient sound of drums and trumpets, which rises in the sky ... A glimpse of life Renaissance ... a leap in our past more beautiful and fruitful, to better understand our present and to better build our future ... This, basically, is the historical procession of Signa. The Historical Procession of Signa, in its current form, was born in 1971 at the hands of people who had and who care about the history, traditions and religious faith of our people of Signa, among which we like to remember the figure of the late Prime Marinelli, who was the inspiration and the initiator, it is made possible thanks to the work and commitment of many signesi constant, and has now assumed considerable proportions. Its composition is a maximum of about 300 people, but parades and marched with setups as re duced (about 100 people), or even minimal (about 30-50 people) and you may well show what ideal frame for opening ceremonies , in addition to the traditional parades storiche. The rich costumes, all made by hand, using quality materials and are particularly suitable are the result of extensive research and accurate historical reconstructions, detected by paintings, drawings and frescoes from the first half of the fifteenth century, and are enriched with hairstyles and jewelery, weapons and friezes of the same era. II Historical Pageant was created to commemorate the solemn procession on the occasion of the transfer of the body of the Blessed Giovanna, which took place in 1385, and is the form in which currently we remember our great compatriot, the patron saint of Signa, Procession which is itself an integral part of a religious procession. The Feast of the Blessed Giovanna which takes place every year on Easter Monday in Signa, is one of the highest and opportunities perceived by the population of Signa. And 'This is perhaps the fact that most lends itself to a festive meeting of all the inhabitants of Signa, which always find their unity in the name of Blessed Joan, one of the most important figures of our local history, who was born, according to some sources documentary in 1242 in Signa, where he distinguished himself in prayer and contemplation. From every part of Tuscany evolved towards her various forms of popular veneration that, at their core, they arrived until today. The historical grew up with the country and has now become a show of great attraction. Born as a manifestation only religious, it has gradually increased its importance, increasing in size and enriched with related initiatives (such as the Banner of the Archers of the Peoples of Signa, during the Old Fair in September, which sets the order of precedence of the four Peoples in Procession) and has turned into a demonstration by the sensitive direction and the equally prepared script. Its roots, so deeply rooted in the history, religion and tradition of our people to Signa. The historical parade was to: The historical Signa, in addition to institutional manifestations in Signa, which are those on the occasion of the Feast of the Blessed, on Easter Monday, and the Banner of the Archers of the Peoples of Signa, during the Old Fair in September, the first week of month, participates in other events of purely historical in other countries or cities of Tuscany, Italy and even abroad. The first event outside Signa dates back to May 1985, on the occasion of the European Year of Music, organized dall'Ambima, who also participated in the historical procession of Signa, parading with all bands present in Rome, with its Drummer-boy and its Chiarinist: remember, in particular, the parade in May 1987, Rome - Vatican City, received by His Holiness Pope John Paul I. Following the historical procession of Signa has marched in numerous other occasions, both in Signa than in other countries and cities, among which, in particular: May 1985 - Rome - European Year of Music January 2005 - Florence - Cavalcade of the Magi May 1987 - Rome - Vatican City in June 2005 - Malmantile (FI) - Medieval Festival May 1987 - Città di Castello (PG) July 2005 - Florence - Feast of St. Anne May 1990 - Maromme (France) November 2005 - Pistoia - Tuscany Feast June 1991 - Lastra a Signa (FI) January 2006 - Florence - Cavalcade of the Magi June 1993 - Campi Bisenzio (FI) July 2006 - Florence - Feast of St. Anne June 1993 - Host of Montemurlo (PO) November 2006 - Livorno - Tuscany Feast September 1993 - Montecatini Terme (PT) January 2007 - Florence - Cavalcade of the Magi May 1994 - Malmantile (FI) - Medieval Festival July 2007 - Florence - Feast of St. Anne September 1994 - Campi Bisenzio (FI) September 2007 - Calenzano - Drappa March 1995 - Sarteano (SI) - Historical Parade-November 2007 Montepulciano Festival d.Toscana May 1995 - Scandicci (FI)-Feast of St. Zenobius January 2008 - Florence - Cavalcade of the Magi May 1995 - Malmantile (FI) - Medieval Festival July 2008 - Florence - Feast of St. Anne June 1995 - Maromme (France) November 2008 - Prato - Tuscany Feast October 1995 - Florence - with spin me. G. Green January 2009 - Florence - Cavalcade of the Magi June 1996 - Oberdrauburg (Austria) June 2009 - Maromme (France) September 1996 - Florence - Wine Festival July 2009 - Florence - Feast of St. Anne August 1997 - Cerreto Guidi (FI) November 2009 - Camaiore - Festival d. Tuscany June 1998 - Malmantile (FI) - Medieval Festival January 2010 - Florence - Cavalcade of the Magi July 1999 - Passignano sul Trasimeno (PG) July 2010 - Florence - Feast of St. Anne September 1998 - Borgo San Lorenzo (FI) November 2010-Arezzo - Tuscany Feast January 2000 - Florence - Cavalcade of the Magi January 201 1 - Florence - Cavalcade of the Magi June 2000 - Castagneto Carducci (LI) May 2011 - Malmantile - Medieval Festival May 2001 - Malmantile (FI) - Medieval Festival July 2011 - Florence - Feast of St. Anne May 2003 - Campi Bisenzio (FI) July 2011 - Ponte a Signa Festa Sant'Anna July 2003 - Florence - Feast of St. Anne October 2011 - Carmignano - Race of Donkeys November 2003 - Mass - Feast of Tuscany January 2012 - Florence - Cavalcade of the Magi July 2004 - Florence - Feast of St. Anne May 2012 - Malmantile - Medieval Festival November 2004 - Pisa - Tuscany Feast August 2012 - Florence - Feast of Sant 'Anna Others will, later on, the parades out of our city, we are working to make ourselves known also from other countries and cities in Italy and Europe.

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The Worshipful Company of the Blessed Sacrament and the Holy Spirit, also called the White Company

In 1348, Tuscany, and especially around the Florentine area, was struck by a terrible plague. The contagion was so widespread that the situation had become uncontrollable, many people were dying for lack of food, medicine and assistance not only material but also spiritual, not being able to receive the Sacraments of the Church. It was then that twenty-four men of Signa made the decision to join the company to make up for these deficiencies in helping the poor lepers. Led by their leader, a certain Hugh, went to the Convent of the Order of Friars Selve del Carmine to seek advice from a respected religious Friar Pietruccio. The favorable opinion, he confessed, and took the Communion from the hand of Fra 'Pietruccio, except that such a Morozzo claimed to have done so recently, you gave a promise to help one another as possible in their enterprise and, dressed in white, with the uniform which were distinguished, began their work of assistance throughout the even pushing to Empoli and Montelupo. Was born in 1348, at the time of the plague, the Society of the White, the color of the dress, such as religious confraternity composed of lay people, in order to help those who were infected, or because of the plague died and then had to be buried, but with the comfort given by religion, as well as in the same period the Brotherhood of Mercy was born in Florence, with the exact same purpose and goals, but with one difference: the robe, black, with the "funny" black, for the Mercy in Florence, white, with the "funny" white for the Company in Signa, since then called "Whites". The establishment of companies was much in use at that time if you think that a Signa, in addition to this, there was the Company of the Good Death which had its headquarters in the Castle and the Society of Corpus Christi to San Miniato. This tradition goes back to 1251 when, as stated in the "History of Florence Wonderful" the Bargellini, first was established in Florence, the "Compagnia di Santa Maria Maggiore", founded by the Dominican Peter of Verona, which declared the purpose to assist abandoned children and old. By the Compagnia di Santa Maria there arose another, also placed under the protection of Our Lady: the "Company of the Virgin Mary of Mercy", the precursor to the current Mercy. Popular tradition says the Bargellini, attributes its foundation to such a Luca Borsi, porter of the Wool Guild, which, among other things, would have had the curious idea of fining the blasphemers who attended the Cellar Adimari finally to collect money for the purchase of "zane" suitable to transport the sick and wounded to the hospital and the dead to the cemetery. In this spirit, supported by a strong Christian faith, the twenty-four men of Signa began their work. They had the task of "rescue and help all those who found themselves in need of spiritual and material matters." Their way into the homes of plague victims to heal them, they ministered to the sick, accompanied the dead to the cemetery. The Fellowship of the Whites had its first official recognition on the occasion of a great procession called in 1348 to ask for the intercession of the Blessed Giovanna it-to stop the plague. It is said that on that occasion the priest gave a kiss to all the arms of the Blessed, Morozzo but when he approached them he was rejected by an invisible force. He tried three times, but in vain. At that point he confessed his guilt publicly, said that he had lied to the Convent of the Selve, who were well twenty years since I approached the sacrament of penance, he told all his sins and, in the space of three days, he died. Many followed the example of the generous men and the company became so large as to be one of the most important in the area. It had its first seat in the parish church of St. John and then moved to the church of San Lorenzo. Then changed his name, becoming the Company of the Blessed Sacrament and the Holy Spirit. His work has continued over the centuries to the present day. Of course today its functions are a little 'changed, but its action is always based on works of charity and worship. It is very common to see today during a funeral a "brother" that accompanies the coffin to the cemetery as it was then, although we can say that the current most important function of the Society is that it is "custodian of the traditions and promoting the festivities that during the centuries have always maintained with solemn processions. " It is in fact the organizer of the feast of the Blessed Giovanna, along with the historical parade of Signa. And the oldest association which still operates in the town of Signa. The Company has its own particular organization and is based on strict rules, obedience, respect and silence in the church, not criticizing the "officers" responsible for the organization of the Company, which, if not met, provide radiation from the group, codified in Chapters, a kind of statute of the association. From the "Chapters" states that their organization is this. The Company is incorporated in the seat, comparable to the Board of Directors of an association today, with officers of officers of Major and Minor. These charges are taken until an election can participate who has over twenty years. More the officers are: Superintendent, who collects the money, but cannot spend it on his own initiative and that can be replaced by two counselors who give him the change, and the Governor, who has the task of maintaining order in the Company and oversee its good performance, the Camarlingo, which spends the money, and it is a bit 'like the President, the corrector, which is the parish priest, and has the task of officiating the Masses, to confess the "brothers", watch the procession. Lower the officers are: Sextons, which are two and shall keep in order the church to prepare for elections, to ring the bells, in order to keep the headquarters of the Society, Nurses, which are two, and visit the sick and the poor or do chores to someone, the Companions, who are eight and carry in procession the Crucifix, the Cross Domains and lanterns. The Society are allowed men and women. The Venerable Seat fixes the rate by which you can remain ordinary members. The Novices need to do a year of internship, and at the feast of Corpus Christi, being dressed by their elder brothers acquiring the right to be part of the seat and put on sackcloth color white It was a spring morning, when the facts tell that occurred. Before we begin, we want to remember, however, the time and the events that led to them. One of our great literature has already done so before us, and it dutifully with his words that begin the narrative, aware that many revive the school memories. This is the "Introduction to the First Day" of the "Decameron" by Giovanni Boccaccio. "... I say, then, that these were the years of the beatific incarnation of the Son of God had reached a 1348 when in the illustrious city of Florence, in addition to any Italic noble, made its appearance that deadly pestilence, which operation or de 'Corps superiors or to our lawless deeds of righteous wrath of God in our correction sent upon us mortals ... "and then continues:" ... not therefore less of anything near spare the countryside, in which (leaving star small villages, which were similar in their smallness to the city) for the scattered villas and camps for the poor and needy workers and their families, without any effort to help the doctor or servant, for the streets and they tilled their day and night alike for homes not as men, but rather as beasts ... " Here, we take now the story of that morning of the year 1348, while in the cities and in the countryside, the plague was raging. A group of men, twenty-four to be exact, all of Signa, united by the same intent of providing aid and comfort to those who had been affected by this disease, led by a man named Uguccio, they went down to the coast and across the bridge over ' Arno, went up to the Convent of the Selve, located on the hill opposite the Castle of Signa. Here they met with Friar Pietruccio Order of Carmelite Friars, known for his charisma. He demanded the blessing and spiritual guidance. He confessed and communicated all, with the exception of Morozzo You tend to Signa, who said that he had confessed to lying. He was later punished for his lies, as described in "The Life and Works of the Blessed Giovanna", manuscript of the tenth century IV. Promise fidelity to the commitment made in the course of its ability in carrying out this work of mercy, they walked to their mission and put on sackcloth, white. They went to Signa and territory of Gangalandi, till at Empoli and Montelupo Castle and the surrounding territories, helping all those who need it both in body and in spirit. This story is our story. The l remember that we can decipher, each in our hearts, it is in essence a memory of our people. Bibliography Moreno Benelli and Remo Vannini of the Archaeological Group of Signa.

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Philharmonic Orchestra Giuseppe Verdi di Signa

History Historically, it has also always been a vital component of the moments of celebration and gathering of the community in large cities and in small countries: the most important events were celebrated with dancing and singing to the rhythm and often the catalyst for all this, and the crossroads , was a musical band. Similarly, this is also the story of the Philharmonic "Giuseppe Verdi" di Signa, consisting of Lorenzo Calosi in 1824, since its inception, the Philharmonic became an important reference point and meeting place for the community Signa, the soundtrack of all the most important moments of celebration civil and religious community, also bringing forward the teaching of music at the new generations. The moment of maximum activity of the Philharmonic coincided with the period between the last years of the nineteenth century and the first decades of the twentieth century. With the end of World War II began, however, the rapid decline: too many changes in society, in tastes, habits, and in the composition of the band itself led to its dissolution in 1952, after more than a hundred years of honorable activity. But the memory remained strong, and the wave of nostalgia - but not only that, but with an eye to the future - in 1981 a group of "old" fans of Signa (Leonetto Franks, Francis Giovagnoli, Ugo Marretti, Luigi Nannucci, Elio Alberto Rugians and Renzo Vettori) gave new life to the Philharmonic, which since then has not stopped since and in almost thirty years of activity has managed to bring back the passion for music into the homes and families of Signa, but even further: it is in fact performed several times at the Salone dei Cinquecento in Old Palace, as well as some of the most beautiful squares in Italy and even in Austria and France. Three Masters (Manlio Freiles, Franco Rannino and now Stefano Mangini) have taken over the years at the helm of musical direction, and they put their expertise at the service of the Philharmonic, but what has made possible the continued growth of this project was mainly the 'enthusiasm and love for music that the members of the band, and residents all, they have shown in recent years. And so much of this work has been done by young people, and for young people. Parallel to the concert, the Philharmonic has promoted the teaching and dissemination of music, through the creation of a school of music, dedicated to the memory of Alberto Rugians, who was one of the main architects of his rebirth. A nice way to foster generational change, and to involve more and more young people: this is thanks to the work of the Masters Carmelo furniture, Tatiana Fedi, Dust to Matthew, Luciano Fiorello and Filippo Daidone, and the large investment made by the Philharmonic, which gave the instruments to the boys and offered free lessons. A great enrichment for everyone, but especially for kids of all ages (from primary school to university, and over) who have taken seriously the 'commitment, and have rediscovered the pleasure of being together. But the projects of the Philharmonic to engage young people do not stop here: the band has also led to the teaching of music in schools, through a teaching project that has approached many kids to music. In particular, the middle school Leonardo da Vinci to Lastra a Signa responded enthusiastically to this project: the first "little talent" begin to appear, and have begun to follow in the footsteps of the "greats". This year, the Philharmonic has performed at four events, including Signa, Lastra a Signa, Radda in Chianti and Piazza della Signoria, and always has been a great success. And now there is a world behind the Philharmonic: The band is composed of 45 items, which are added the boys of the Youth Group, the Majorettes of Dance Connection, which sometimes accompany the live band, the boys of Leonardo da Vinci, the School which consists of 100-120 boys and, last but not least, also the "chorus of mothers." A great job, and a great passion, and it is no accident that a Signa it comes back to breathe music, and it is not uncommon to find a tool in every home. "We're back to being a meeting point like old times," he says with pride, and even a little 'of emotion, the current President of the Philharmonic Fabrizio Rossi. In short, a really nice project. In particular, there is a great interest for all youth activities carried out by the Philharmonic. Because music is an infectious passion, which is transmitted through the generations, but that it might grow a fruit, we need someone to plant a seed. On 6 December 2011, the Philharmonic Orchestra Giuseppe Verdi, together with the Corteo Storico di Signa, has been in the Hall of '500 in the Old Palace, the certificate of "Group of national interest".

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The Renai Park

The Renai Park Signa is not only history and art, culture and centuries-old architectural beauty. Positioned in a naturalistic environment original, surrounded by hills and surrounded by a large area with many lakes and rivers, it offers numerous natural attractions and unique natural environments. To the east of Signa, closed by the confluence of the Arno with Bisenzio, covers an area about three hundred acres sandy, all dotted with lakes of various shapes and sizes. This is called Renai island, an island in particular, not being completely surrounded by water. However, its structure and conformation is due in large part to the two rivers that surround and define and numerous lakes that dot, giving it a very peculiar shape. Within this natural and populated, in which the balance between man and nature has remained untouched for centuries, it has been realized a large park and river boat, the "Free State of Renai", one of the most important river parks Europe. The origin of these bodies of water can be attributed to the intensive sand mining began after World War II, when the devastation caused by the conflict, followed by a reconstruction passionate and tumultuous, but often messy and without programming. In the 50s in fact all the beaches, the lake shores, river banks were under assault to be turned into quarries; Renai i did not escape this fate, and the ancient bond between man and river flooding and the fact of good agricultural land and intensely cultivated remained unchanged for centuries, suddenly stopped to give way to cranes and machinery for the extraction of sand. At the end of the '70s, however, thanks to the emergence of a more conscious ecological awareness, mining activities were interrupted, and he began to think about the recovery of this large area. The challenge was to try to re-establish a new balance between man and the river, environmentally friendly but at the same time accessible, that is, trying to avoid "freeze" the landscape and nature, marginalizing by human development. Today the victory of this challenge is before the eyes of all citizens of Signa and thousands of visitors every year, from April to October, flock to the park Renai. The company Isola dei Renai SpA, which manages the park with 51% of the shares, including the municipal administration Signa, the other municipalities of the Plain Florentine, the Province of Florence and the Tuscany Region, together with the company Renai Project, a consortium that instead owns 49% of the shares and who is pursuing the project of excavation and construction of the park, consisting of the former owners of the land of the Renai, they succeeded largely to reconstruct in a harmonious aspects with environmental and agricultural, and needs of sports and recreational activities with those of ecological protection. The Renai Park is currently home to various water activities and sports: sailing, windsurfing, boat rental, picnic areas with swimming pool, soccer fields, beach volleyball, mini golf and climbing wall equipped for you and free climbing, park playground, bar, restaurant and pizzeria, as well as a great beach for bathing. Inside it is possible to take walks in the green of the many nature reserves of the WWF, rich in flora and fauna typical of a river and lake. Along the river also extends the Arno river park, with a 10-kilometer bike path that connects to the Renai at Cascine Park in Florence.

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History of Medieval Festival in Castle

A Signa, starting from the first week of September, there is an event of great tourist attraction, which is reminiscent of a historical event important for the community Signa, Signa siege to the castle by the troops of Gian Galeazzo Visconti and the subsequent rejection militias, which took place in 1397. The siege of the Castle of Signa was an episode of the war that began in 1396: in March 1397 the troops of the Visconti allocated with allied Siena undertaked raid in the Florentine countryside led by Count Alberigo, reaching a Signa, who unsuccessfully besieged for two days (24 and 25 March). Fires from the tower The refusal of the militia Visconti was therefore a source of pride to the community, which provided to perpetuate his memory for as long as possible. During the fair in September, on the occasion of the commemoration of this historical episode medieval Castle Signa back to life, bustling with people, sounds, music, dance and color. The narrow streets of the castle come alive in fact, markets and stalls selling handicrafts, artifacts and food stands, while ancient jugglers, actors and extras - dressed in the medieval fashion - walk the historical center dragging locals and visitors back in time, at the time in which the castle was the central hub of the life of the town. During the Fair also the historical procession accompanying the remains of the Blessed the day of Easter Monday is back, parading through the streets of the Castle and accompanying competitors of the Banner of the Archers of the Peoples of Signa. Also this event, the historic character whilst not actually recalling similar events held in the past, constitutes an important time of the Fair. It aims to recall the old rivalries between the four peoples that was once divided Signa. To the people who with his archers won the race, the Banner is assigned and the honor of adorning the donkey with their own colors at the next Feast of Blessed Joan, as well as the right of way in the parade of the historical parade during the same party. During the parade are the Alfieri to carry the flag or insignia, representative of his people: the flag of Santa Maria in Castle is on a white field, dominated by a large lily blue, silver and purple surrounded by lists made with Marian symbols, in honor of the Virgin, Protectress of this people. That of San Lorenzo is in black and green field, dominated by a diagonally grill silver, symbol of the Holy Martyr remembered by these people. The flag of San Miniato instead is surmounted by a crown pierced by a sword, in memory of the martyrdom of Saint Florentine, a black field. Finally, one of San Giovanni is dominated by a large red cross on a white field. On the sides there are waves, symbolizing the waters of baptism and, in a shield, the crux of the Baptist populi.

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XIX edition of the Medieval Festival of SIGNA - Friday 6 - Saturday, September 7, 2013

Many hours of entertainment, some two hundred artists and extras involved in representations of various kinds: historical re-enactments, fighting, street performers, music, dance and theater raids. The Medieval Festival of Signa also for 2013 will be confirmed among the most popular events of the summer in Tuscany. Founded in 1995, after 19 years is still able to involve the inhabitants of the castle and the many associations in the area, first of all, the Pro Loco of Signa, to organize the many shows offered at this festival in a medieval style. Dozens of events will enliven the heart of the Castle of Signa, a blast from the past that will give strong emotions in children and adults, who are about to see fights, dances and more. You can watch the re-enactment of the fire of the Tower of the North (dating to 1397) and the spectacle of Falconry group Sovereign. Visitors will they capture the play of fire and from representations in scene through the streets of the village. A mixture of sounds, images and even shows dedicated to children, who will enjoy to the hilt the atmosphere that is breathed in an ancient medieval village, listening to storytellers or visiting the corners of the village hosting jugglers and acrobats. A cultural experience and entertainment that will give emotions at the table: the thousands of infatt9i guests will taste the local gastronomic specialties prepared by Castellani in the various dining options located in the ancient village. Saturday, September 7 instead of the gardens of the Ivy Castle will host a large Medieval Dinner. Dances, shows in medieval theme, music, artists of various kinds accompany the various dishes, all strictly in use at the time (input, including dinner and show: adults € 25.00 - € 15.00 children), culminating in the ' fire in the north tower, impressive fireworks display in surprise. Three-hour experience where the wine will flow like rain. This is Tuscany looking for tourists, but also the people themselves, who each year flock to many through the narrow streets of the medieval village. The real show is in fact the audience, made up of families, children, Italian and foreign tourists, lovers of historical reenactment events. The Medieval Festival remains a major cultural event, a virtuous example of collaboration between the municipal authorities, local associations, Pro site in the first place and residents. Signa now has earned over the years, thanks to a consistent schedule, a picture of the place of art and culture that we intend to consolidate, promoting cultural tourism and sustainable tourism development model and qualified to ensure a positive economic impact to the whole 'induced.

XIX edition of the Medieval Festival of SIGNA - Friday 6 - Saturday, September 7, 2013 - Leggi il resto

What is the Pro Loco

The Tourist Association Pro Loco Signa, brings together all the individuals, who intend to work actively to promote the development of tourism, cultural, environmental, social, sporting, historical, artistic territory of Signa and help improve the lives of its residents . It did not for profit and its members working for the same with the concept of volunteering, working with the internal organization based on the principles of democracy and addressed to achieve the best possible results within the business of promotion and social utility . The objectives of the Pro Loco Signa whose objects are:     Carry out effective work to organize the tourist resort, offering all the initiatives to protect and enhance the natural beauty and cultural heritage, historical, monumental and environmental;     To promote and organize events (conferences, excursions, public performances, exhibitions, celebrations, sports events, food and wine fairs and / or other beliefs, as well as social initiatives, environmental recovery, restoration and management of monuments, etc. ..) which serve to attract and make more pleasant the stay of tourists and the best quality of life for residents;     Develop a sense of welcome to the guests     Treating protection, information and reception of tourists, including through the tourist office;     Promote and develop activities in the social sector and the voluntary sector     Cooperate with the competent bodies in the supervision on the conduct of public and private services of interest to tourists;     Promote and develop solidarity and voluntary work as well as the social gathering, through activities in the social sector and volunteering to help the people of the locality. The Pro Loco Signa adheres to the U. N. P. L. I. (National Union of Pro Loco of Italy) and the Regional Committee of the Pro Loco of Tuscany, in compliance with the laws and regulations U. N. P. L. I.

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Manufacture of Signa

The Manufacture of Signa is a historic pottery workshop of pottery. It was created in 1895 by the will of Camillo Bondi. HISTORY At the beginning of the twentieth century Signa was still among the major industrial centers of the straw. In that industry, who had to know the name of the country beyond the national boundaries, he had added another activity that, since the last five years of the nineteenth century and into a narrow space of years, it would have raised the name in European markets and Americans: the industry of artistic terracotta "Manufacture of Signa", founded in Signa (Florence), in 1895 by Camillo Bondi, in the factory premises "Furnaces of Signa" owned by the brother Angelo. At that time, the taste for fake antique continued to be seduced by its charm, and the interest in the ceramic tradition had led the most important Italian manufacturers to revisit forms and Renaissance decoration, reaching a high craftsmanship with the “istoriato” ancient virtuosity and the grotesque. Manufacture 1If those productions interpreted the old and eclecticism typical of the nineteenth century, the Manufacture of Signa was intended instead the perfect likeness of the truth, both through the forms trod when possible on the original, whether through patinas simulating those of marble and bronzes and even breakdowns of the time, in order to obtain precisely the appearance of the authentic piece, both visually as to the tactile sense and, in certain bronzes, also sound. In this spirit will take shape from the mud of the Arno reproductions of masterpieces of sculpture and decorative of all time: from the Etruscan and Greek statuary, from Roman to Renaissance, from the Moorish vessels up to the contemporary creations liberty. The manufacturing success that ensued exhibition as witnessed by the many awards the medal at the Universal Expo in Paris in 1900, where he exhibited numerous terracotta plastic, suitable for decorating the exteriors, the particular coating that made the great look and greater resistance to weather, soon expanded the number of occupations and specialization of young artists supported by the experience of sculptors excellent reputation, called a Signa for new conceptions by brothers Bondi, the brilliant founder and conductor of the Manufacture, coming from a family of 'upper middle class Jewish intellectual and Livorno, and more environmentally antipositivist the Florentine magazine "Il Marzocco." With the new industry is generated so Signe in an informal school of young workers who, despite having no formal education, growing up in the experience of the sculptors and in contact with the most sublime models of the classical universal veritable concentration of museums in the world , were naturally stimulated and educated at the beautiful shapes and proportions, becoming refined craftsmen, laminators or even sculptors, will give rise to other similar manufacturers. In 1911, the Horticultural Florence was the scene of a major exhibition for the celebrations promoted by Manifattura 3omune of Florence in the context of the fiftieth anniversary of the Unification of Italy. On this occasion, the considerable changes were made some of which are still kept, among them it is worth highlighting the construction of the Loggia Bondi by the Manufacture of Signa. This spirit of alacrity and fervor you can also catch him in the text of a scroll Gabriele D'Annunzio, an admirer and collector of reproductions of Signa, dictated to the workers of the factory on the occasion of the appointment of his friend Camillo Bondi Cavaliere del Lavoro " The new Manifattura Cavaliere of Labour, Camillo Bondi, that on the banks of the Arno witness of every human work caused a more spirited young people of architects and educated to the worship of excellent examples, reviving the clay from Etruscan already ' ancient potter conduct the eternal life of beauty: the cooperators humble but fervent offer high-to-day onoranza this sign of granulation and devotion agree. " ARTISTS There are many artists who have collaborated with the Manufacture of Signa: Oreste Calzolari, John Prini, Giulio Cantalamessa, Adolf von Hildebrand, Raffaello Romanelli, Joseph Santelli, Renato Bertelli, Giovan Battista Casanova, Bruno Catarzi, Italo Griselli, REFERENCES Marco Moretti, "Bruno Catarzi Sculptor 1903-1996," Masso delle Fate Editions, Signa, 2005 Giampiero Fossi, Beyond the twentieth century - "Contemporary Art in Signe," Masso delle Fate Editions, Signa, 2003 Ornella Casazza and Marco Moretti, "Joseph Santelli - Paintings and drawings," Masso delle Fate Editions, 1996 Marco Moretti, "Alvaro Cartei - The path of a solitary artist in the ferment of his time," Masso delle Fate Editions, 2003 Arnolfo Santelli, "A gentleman artist - Life and Viaticum of Joseph Santelli," Soc Leonardo da Vinci in Florence, 1974

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The explosives factory NOBEL

Signa has hosted for a good half of the twentieth century dynamite factory that has played a central role in the supply of the Italian Army during the two world wars. In Italy there was already a dynamite factory in Avigliana owned by the companies of Alfred Nobel, but had some problems: it was too close to the borders enemies, had old machinery and had been the victim of some serious explosion. For this reason it was decided to build a new factory on a site that had the best features. The location chosen was located at the confluence with the river Ombrone the hive, near the border with Carmignano on the way to Comeana. Because of its proximity to Carmignano, his station and his community that the factory will be named the plant Carmignano even if it was in the territory of Signa. The reasons for the choice were many: a relative proximity of the quarries of pyrite of the Maremma and the Val di Cecina, remoteness from the sea-coast, in a central position with respect to the State, the easy access by rail to the port of Livorno (proximity to the railway Carmignano), the characteristics of the place, isolated and surrounded in part by the Ombrone good at that point forms a loop. The land, part of the estate of San Momeo in the area called The Pict, was purchased in 1912 and a year later began the jobs that were impressive: it was moved to the main road between Signa and Comeana that passed just inside the chosen area for the factory, and was consequently built a new bridge, the forest was planted in portions of the hill, however, were planted with vines in order to make the system difficult to detect from the air forces that were beginning to develop; buildings were built very solid, draw roads , avenues and squares, and dig tunnels. The production had features exclusively military. During the First World War, the factory produced mainly explosives and munitions of large caliber cannon: balistite and dynamite. After the Great War the factory lost its interest in the property and it was sold in 1925 to Montecatini that ten years later, the Company also acquired General Ammunition and Explosives with the birth of the company Nobel-SGEM. The period of peace in Montecatini used the plant for agricultural experiments (in an open area of the woods on the banks of Ombrone and also in greenhouses) and experimental chemical productions. In the years before the Second World War, however, the factory was again a major military role; resumed the production of explosives (always a nitroglycerin) and were built many new buildings and even a train with small railcars to transport the material between the various pavilions and then downstream to the railroad and of which there are some sections of the rails that are placed on the last stretch of reinforced concrete pylons, which are also attacked by the vegetation, like many other building structures. In the 1944 Nobel fell to the Germans who began to exploit it and from that moment became the subject of sabotage on the part of the partisans: the most sensational occurred on 11 June and this is the story: The night of 11 June 1944 the powder keg blows up, the explosion of 8 convoys full of TNT stops at the station. "It's not an accident, how people think on the spot. No, is the result of sabotage of Patriotic Action Team, led by Bogardo Buricchi. With him, the brother Alighiero, Bruno Spinelli, Ariodante Naldi, Lido Sardis, Mario Banci, Enzo Faraoni and Ruffo Del Guerra. Bogardo Buricchi was born in Carmignano. 24 years old. E 'defined teacher and poet, free spirit, he hates injustice. And 'the undisputed leader. His brother Alighiero just 19 years old. Lino Sardi, a resident of the Sierra, has always lived with the family Buricchi. Bruno Spinelli is the oldest of the group. 43 years old. It 'a former worker of the Nobel Prize. E 'in his first action. Banci Mario is 22 years old. He was born in Genoa by parents of Carmignano. And 'entered the Resistance in December 1943, when it is displaced by a Montalbiolo. Ariodante Naldi, 21, is a student in Florence. Ruffo Del Guerra is 21 years old. Lives in Poggio alla Malva, where he met Bogardo Buricchi, who goes to see the priest frequently. He was of anti-fascist family. His father was reduced from death by the squad. They decided to make an important action targeting the wagons of the train station Nobel gunpowder. Were informed that they are loaded with TNT. And 'Saturday. Drizzling. They are located in front of the bar of Poggio alla Malva. From there he returned to the cypress Cavaccia. Bogardo Buricchi states not to proceed together, but they have to go three on this side and three on the other, while he and Naldi go to law. They know that the wagons are eight, about four hundred yards from the station on a railway track isolated. They also know that there are guards, which must be eliminated. But I do not see them. There is none. The cars there are. Bogardo gives the green light. The Germans are elsewhere. Participate at a party and are far from bright. The operation is simple, says Bogardo. In practice there is to light a fuse. But they also have a time bomb. You never know. Bogardo Ariodante and come in a wagon. Alighiero remains on the ground. A Bruno Spinelli was given a box of forty pounds of TNT. He and Mario Banci have to go to Cavaccia for safekeeping. It can be used for other actions. Ruffo Del Guerra ago from pole in the cypress grove. And 'him to see the light of Bogardo. And 'him to see Bogardo Ariodante and jump off the wagon. And a second after the blinding glare, the tremendous explosion. What did not work? Enzo Faraoni and Lido Sardinians have had time to move. It 'broke a wagon. In succession, they burst the other, is said to have sympathy. Bogardo, his brother Alighiero e Ariodante are thrown against the rocks. Disintegrated, Bogardo and Ariodante. Of them will be found shreds and railway pass of Ariodante. Alighiero has few moments of life. Pharaohs and Sardi end up lying down, not seriously injured. Del Guerra faints perhaps hit by a log. Has seen several fly - frozen - were not even twigs. Bruno Spinelli, the Cavaccia, is invested by the shock wave that detonates the carrying case. It's a flight of several meters and goes to beat his head against a rock. He died shortly thereafter. Mario Banci is injured, but we do move. Non known how many casualties among the Germans. It is true that all the buildings have been invested. Who went well, had the roof blown off. The explosion was heard in Prato and Florence. Which makes us understand the power. That we also look at the size of the crater caused. Are such as to have knocked out a nice stretch of rails, preventing the passage of trains for days and days. It is the most important action of the partisans in Florence. The price paid, however, is salty. We have good people lost their lives. Bogardo Buricchi, despite his young age, he has always shown great maturity and courage. In February, he organized a strike of farmers of Carmarthen at the clutter of additional grain (15 kg for each member of the family). And on March 2 has become the protagonist of the fire from the municipal office where the documents were collected. He also mocked the Band Charity, arrived in Carmignano to bring order. A formation of Prato partisans immediately take the name of Bogardo Buricchi: is the one that took part in the liberation of the city wool. All four, 12 June 1966, the peoples of Carmignano, Prato dedicate a memorial to Poggio alla Malva. It 'called "And now you learn." After the end of the war, government contracts ceased and began the period of crisis that resulted in mass layoffs. A last attempt to save the factory was to convert the factory to the production of plant protection and pesticides. But it was destined for closure that took place in 1958. After that in 1964 the plant has been reclaimed from the residues of explosives and materials used in their manufacture, the area on which stood the plants lies unused and is passed into private hands. Since then a lot of projects for reuse of the area have remained on paper, including the idea, developed in the seventies, to move the entire University of Florence. Instead, everything is kept as it was and the buildings (over a hundred) are in better condition than you might expect, given that only a few roofs with wooden beams collapsed or are unsafe while the walls are largely intact in Because of the great design features and architectural quality that characterizes them, as well as for reinforced concrete structures. Recently the area was about to be bought by a U.S. group to be able to make the film studios, demolishing most of the existing buildings that make up a wealth of industrial archeology that has no equal, both as regards the older buildings the first prewar ones of the second pre-war engineering.

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VILLA CASTELLETTI

Villa Castelletti The Villa Castelletti is situated on a hill along the road that leads to Lecore, near the river Ombrone. We do not know why it's called Castelletti, you can only make hypotheses. You may think it's kind in a place where once there could be a fort and hence the term Castelletti. We read also that the first country villas were equipped with turrets and battlements with defensive functions and can, therefore, vaguely remember a small castle. No document, however, confirms the one or the other hypothesis. We know that this villa is prior to 1400 and that the family who built it was that of the Strozzi. Was then much smaller than the current one, included only the input and the two lateral wings. It was formed from the ground floor and an upper floor, the entrance was at the rear than the current façade, it was considered the "twin" of the Villa of the Selve . The clock, in fact, on the façade of the latter is equal to that of Castelletti. After the Strozzi, there have been many families that have lived in the property of this villa, we recall the Lapi and Uguccioni. In 1500 we know that there were Cavalcanti, powerful family as early as 1000. There is an inventory of 1577 that lists everything that there was then in this villa, recorded, precisely as property Cavalcanti. Between 1600 and 1700 the villa was deep restorations to the original structure were added two wings and a loggia-belvedere was built. The main entrance was moved to the north side of the building. In some documents of 1700 speaks of a villa consists of 32 rooms are situated on the ground floor and the first floor. In 1727 this dynasty dies, he dies without heirs in fact Alexander Cavalcanti. To perpetuate the name of his family he had left in a will, the following provisions: "The most direct relationship required that the villa and other property should be left to his cousin Thaddeus Mancini, who, if he had remained childless, too, would had to send it to Urban Cattani, To take advantage of the goods, however, is that the Mancini Cattani had to change the arms and their name and surname and adopt that of Cavalcanti. " This will was contested by several Florentine families Capponi and the Companions, who thought they had more right to enter into possession of this inheritance. The Chief Magistrate of Florence, however, rejected this appeal. In 1749 died the last descendant of Mancini, so in 1750 he settled Urban Cattani, which takes the name of Alexander Cavalcanti. The Cattani family came from Barberino del Mugello and already in 1400 had titles of nobility; Cattani comes from "Cattano" meant that at the time of the Lombards 'captain'. The last representative of the Cattani Cavalcanti was Leopold who founded the School Philanthropy Agriculture. The accounts were succeeded by the Montagliari - of German origin - intermarried with Mayer and Florence had built the hospital that still bears their name. While the owners were Montagliari, the villa underwent further changes, it was a second floor was built and the loggia-viewpoint we can admire today. In the same period were also rearranged the garden and the park. In 1900 we had, as owners, Cabrini and Kroff. In the early 50 Count Kroff instituted in this villa a school for children from poor families. This villa has always been the center of a vast agricultural estate as testified to by the records of possessions described in the various Catastres. The Cadastre Lorenese of 1700 there lists a number of possessions including a dozen farmhouses, a dozen houses, two courtyards and many plots of land planted with grass, wheat, vines and olives. There were also areas for woodland and areas for the cultivation of mulberry trees. The Pini in 1800 there describes this land "full of beautiful vineyards symmetrically arranged, with the most refined and cultivated land mastery of the art, it is the model of its agrarian development of the whole Tuscan province." Pini always tells us that there was a ‘burraia’ adjacent to the villa which provided the butter of excellent quality, due both to the goodness of the forage which were fed the cows, and to the newly-invented machine that Cattani Cavalcanti had introduced. It was part of the property of the villa also a furnace, this is because every time a farm provided by itself to produce the bricks that were needed. This furnace is also mentioned in the registers of 1700 under the definition of "more mouths kiln roof tiles, bricks and mortar." We no longer find listed nor the mill and the "molinuzzo" Ombrone, nor the mill that had operated until 1700 instead. There are two avenues leading to the villa, both are elegant and majestic having, at the sides, the one two rows of cypress trees, the other oaks. Bibliography L. Elementary School da Vinci, "SIGNA BETWEEN HISTORY AND TRADITION" Typography Nova, June 1990

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VILLAGE SCHOOL ARTISAN

VILLAGE SCHOOL ARTISAN The Artisan Village School has a very special history and amazing, that is worth telling, albeit briefly, because it represented the history, culture, work, education, crafts in fifty years starting from the immediate post-war period. The area is heavily impacted by the war, not lack of truly human material to be reclaimed: there was indeed too. It was therefore collect the boys were orphaned and without direction, give them a home, start a job, prepare them to face life with dignity. For all those young people, was born, the VILLAGE SCHOOL OF ARTISAN SIGNA. It is called Village because everything was organized as a small democratic state, because School began its life in the basement of the Elementary Schools of Signa and to give even a minimal education to the mass of children who survived the war, Craftsman, because, in addition to the democratic coexistence , the boys received specific training to local crafts. He had life May 13, 1945 by the will of the Master Leopoldo FANTOZZI a the Master Builder Roberto Carpitelli. On February 5, 1946 is the date of the inauguration of the Village on the premises of the Elementary Schools of Signa. There was not, nor was meant to be, a well-defined programmatic line. In the Village which synthesized the redundant elementary school, he studied and worked. The three-year courses had a program eminently practical form of skilled craftsmen, who could then find employment in local industries. All the teachings and activities were carried out to this end. Every form of knowledge learned, rhetorical, abstract was banned from the school, in which the theoretical subjects were closely related with the practical subjects. Hence the great importance of the theoretical teaching, attributed to the study of the laws local craft, the technique of the work, drawing craftsman. In the laboratories attached to the Village prospective artisans practiced under the guidance of experienced workers, to shape the clay on the wheel, to paint pottery, to carve wood. The departments ceramic and carpentry, already in full swing, they were followed by the department 'straw' (as it is known straw processing was one of the most important industries of Signa), the laboratory of mechanical and electrical engineering in this year was being construction. Each student had a way of making his experience, to explore their own inclinations and to orient themselves to the task for which he felt more inclined. But by what means was born and lived in the village? It was life more than food, and by money, by unselfish love of the people Signa. They were local companies that gave their contribution in education because they saw the continuation of the Florentine; were the workers who spontaneously gave up a part of their weekly pay in favor of their child's school, and tired out the evening from the laboratory or workshop, willingly sacrificing an hour or two of freedom, selflessly to teach their craft to the citizens of the Village. Unbelievable but true, at a time when the most narrow-minded selfishness seemed to triumph in the world. But there's more. Young unemployed people in the area were also hospitality in the village, where they worked fraternally with the children to learn a job. But in 1947 the premises, formerly the seat of the Village, were closed Authority, and the Village itself saw its second light, the true light, in a large barn, not great, but decent, located in Viuzzo Bordoli. It was what a small world of poor people, an environment that loved for his humility, because serene retreat where everyone nell'operosità in constant sacrifice of each day, he had the joy of not being alone. And the boys learned to manage themselves, to feel the intimate beauty of being useful to themselves and to others. The big room took a different look, bought with the passage of time a particular beauty, all exerted themselves to this, all donated their love to the foreign company. The village bought the troubled path, in this his strenuous rebirth human consciousness even more sensitive, and turned his eyes to wider horizons, in the sweet dream of creating a home, because a lot of youth could hope for love. This dream long cherished in secret, filled with faces, things, enriched by feeling in the images, the Master Fantozzi pushed to give the village a home. It all started in 1950. 1 January 1950 - the negotiations are completed by the Master with Mr. Fantozzi Rindi for the purchase of land in Via Cattani Cavalcanti with area of about 2400 square meters; January 5, 1950 - Is the compromise entered into between the two parties. The Master Fantozzi make half the payment in pounds 375,000, the remaining payment is given by the property long enough. At the same time Mr. Giuseppe Corti gives the village a plot of land adjacent to the one already purchased. January 10, 1950 - It is convened a plenary meeting where they discussed the divisions of activities. Here are the names and positions: . Silvio Michelagnoli Technical Director . Antonio bundles Designer . Alberto Carpitelli Head Mutator . Joseph SANTELLI Assistant . Rolando Marmugi Assistant . Lorenzo FEI Assistant . pupils and parents and citizens signesi Insiders The building will really impressive, will have a front of 52 m and two side 25. It will have a magnificent staircase, entrance hall and gardens to the front and a large courtyard at the back where it will be prepared amusements. January 15, 1950 - Start of construction. They make the holes for the lime and there arises. It was then that many children ran to throw new seed among the clods, a seed strange, never known from the rich soil, a seed that slowly developed to generate walls. The field lost all its ancient appearance, became industrious yard, let it penetrate deep and long tracciassero ditches. January 22, 1950 - Week of Wonders. From the River Arno the boys have brought the renone. Were initiated excavations for the foundations. In the early days, the hardest, the masons were only on Sunday to pay their work and in that sacred day, you could see the now barren hill, full of healthy young people who improvise, for the occasion, laborers choice. And so for weeks, for months continued in indifference, skepticism of many, the steady rise. June 1950 - Raining in Signa to lend a hand to these guys about fifteen people from the most different and distant parts of the world. The land becomes Village of building an international field of work where they spend a certain period of their holiday, all people coming to Florence for the UNESCO conference. July-August 1950 - Finally the cut is made. You can begin to lay the foundation. In the small square between bricks and stones were built the first joists, some rooms waiting to be covered and everyone, young and old, there was the same moving hold. And the first day long cherished, thought with faltering affection, with desperate will want between sacrifices and pains came. It was a Sunday wonderful, nature had dressed up with colorful flowers, and the sun in the sky made it sweeter and more pleasant in the morning. They found themselves gathered in the small square, teens and adults, all of them ready to work until the joists were not placed on the walls that were waiting. They had placed the issue of time, much less soppesavano fatigue that day for them was the realization of a part of that dream dear to our heart, it was a real victory over selfishness. The joists moved with difficulty accomplished one by one and gave the short trip to the first room the shadow of the hedge. In the hard work the kids like the big ansavano for fatigue, sweating pushing the ropes, looked with eyes dimmed with tears those walls that little by little is completed. The Village had from that day his house. That room was covered just the beginning not the end of a conscious sacrifice, pure breath of freedom, loyalty and love that rose from the walls unfinished, teaching the unbelievers, the fearful, the theoreticians of each address. With the passing of the days, months, with the same spirit of the spring Sunday, other rooms were covered and finished inside, ready to accommodate those children one day laborers, students as young workers. In 1958, the Village is completed as it is today and to do from there godmothers Clelia GARIBALDI and Wanda FERRAGAMO.CLELIAGARIBALDI The story is very brief, and is taken from the first newspaper written by Stelio FANTOZZI and printed by students Typographers the Village. I want to emphasize some aspects to the most unknown (but not for the former students of the Village), which make the environment a special place and forgotten town of Signa: 1. The Village have taught signesi prominent figures such as Giuseppe SANTELLI, CARTEI, Raphael said I WERE 'Rafo', and not as signesi Antonio Berti, Antonio bundles, Ugo MORI, Peter ANNIGONI and many others. These great personalities of the world of painting and sculpture have left some works inside the Shrine of childhood, and in some interior and exterior spaces of the Village itself 2. The Master Leopold FANTOZZI was awarded: - In December 1964 National Award "Star of Goodness" - In 1966 the "National Award of Merit Education" and the "National Award Marzocco." 3. In nearly fifty years of school, 10,000 students have come all the spaces of the Village and found decent jobs, and some have become famous in all areas in which the Village performed its function of teaching: from ceramics, to jewelry, from straw to typography, from the mechanical to electrical engineering, from leather goods to sculpture. 4. In 1961, 14 trees were planted in the gardens in front of the village in honor of the thirteen fallen in Kindu and the Marshal ROUND (Signa) Tanganyika fell into the following week massacre of Kindu. Even today, the trees, now become large (to overcome the structure) exist and is the only monument 'living' - as in Italy - dedicated to the dead of Kindu. 5. Works carried out by students of the village there is in the city of Spar and Magnano (Friuli).

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The Villa of San Lorenzo

History The Villa San Lorenzo is located on the side of the hill of San Miniato, facing north-east and well hidden by large trees in the park that surrounds it. This complex consists of two villas, the oldest of which dates back to 1400, while the construction of the second, what is now commonly regarded as the villa itself - can be placed between the second half of 1500 and the first half of 1600 . We have a lot of information about their history, we do not know, in fact, the name of the family that built the oldest part, and the second was perhaps built by From Red, because some documents prove that in 1600 was home to this family. In 1500 and in 1600 the Del. Red, which among other things were also famous collectors of works of art, potevanono considered among the wealthiest and most powerful members of the Florentine nobility. With regard to the latter group we read in the historical Ceramelli Papiani "originated by Antonio Corsi from Signa which was a coachman from the castle in Florence and derived its origin from a Puccino Lotto ... and Andrea Rosso, Antonio's sons, piled trade with the immense wealth that ensued Florentine citizenship in 1598. " The Villa San Lorenzo remained the property of Del Rosso also throughout the 1700s. In the land of Lorraine, 1782, between the property inherited by Marco Del Rosso there were also these two villas. The first is described as follows: "the gentleman house with garden and dovecote located in the parish of St. Lawrence in Signa, Podesta Fields, the place called the villa at the well of John the Good which is bordered by going to Artimino Street that according to Rendina (Rein) that goes to San Miniato from the well of John Good ... " The location of this is taken as a reference point the well of a certain John Coupons namely understandable because once a Signa wells there were few. Even today, the older of the country call it the "Pozzino" that group of houses in a street near the intersection with Via Alberti's Reins, bordering precisely with the Villa San Lorenzo. and queso, perhaps, with some reference to the Del Rosso. The other house is described as follows: "the gentleman house with a yard, garden, courtyard and a dovecote in the people of San Lorenzo in Signa, bordered to the first road that goes to the hill of Signa, according to the square of San Lorenzo it .. .. " This description is proof that in the villa passed the road that leads to San Miniato and there is now Via Alberti. We have also learned that in past centuries were called "houses of lords" homes that the gentleman kept at its disposal to when he went to the countryside, as they were called "houses worker" the peasants' houses or other employees. In 1807, following the failure of Mark Del Rosso, the villa with all the adjoining land, was sold at auction and was purchased by Leon Battista Alberti for the sum of 139,982 francs (ASF). In 1836, Mario Mori Ubaldini Benedict inherited the title and property of Count Alberti and among them also the villa San Lorenzo. I Mori Ubaldini descended from a family known for Aldobrandinelli in the Middle Ages was powerful in Signa "where was a turreted palace surrounded by a walled enclosure" (ASF). Of this building we know nothing, nor where it was located, or how it presented, the documents we consulted do not say anything about it. We know that often the Renaissance villas were built on medieval structures that already exist and this would lead to think that it was located where he later built a villa. It belonged to this family who Dante in his "Divine Comedy" 'a sign of contempt called the "villan from Signa" that the famous jurist Boniface Mori member of the party of the Blacks, Whites enemy of what he belonged to Dante. This family remained the owners of the villa until 1908, when it was bought by Mr Tanini. In 1941 it passed to a certain Mr Snaider and then to Mr. Tempesti in 1947. Since 1970, owns a company whose director is Mr Tempestini The most important building, what is referred to as the villa itself, is L-shaped and irregular show that they have suffered in the course of time, as stated in the report made by the architect Morozzi the Superintendency of Monuments, several interventions. The facade is nineteenth century and there is no place the emblem of Morubaldini Alberti, Above the roof stands a loggia-viewpoint from where you can admire the one hand, the landscape as far as Florence, and, secondly, to Poggio a Caiano. The construction of these terraces typical of many villas can be the witness of love for nature that the owners of the past could have, In the basement there are wineries, which are also of considerable interest. The oldest part of this complex includes those places that until a few years ago were on the farm. There were in fact a wine cellar, a mill and a warehouse. Affects the facade of this building, but rather the courtyard, whose columns are bookended with beautiful capitals in stone. The ceiling at times recalls the taste of the age in which it was built. There is a room that was once used as a stable and in front of it there is a portico with three arches. Another place was the lemon that was born as a salon, but then, perhaps, when the building lost a little importance to the advantage of the largest was left as a greenhouse for lemons. On a façade there is the inscription "Cor magis tibi Signa pandit" (A Signa you open more of the heart). There it was possible to visit the interior of this villa, we therefore proceeds to hear from people who have worked there for many years. There have been also help reproducing some of the photos of the building interior. We knew that the what is called the "villa" is composed of 64 rooms, including among these are two large rooms decorated with paintings murals that date back to the last century. A photo of several years ago shows us an armory very beautiful with many weapons of various ages, hanging on the walls. The Santelli describes the interior of this building: "the most beautiful and oldest of all the villas signesi ... which once enthralled with its rooms decorated with taste almost asitico '. The floors of the various rooms are ceramic or cooked. Several locals are equipped with a fireplace and many of the ceilings are paneled with hand-made decorations. part of the villa is also a chapel, where the owners once used in religious services. The park surrounding this complex is always very great even if it is not like it used to when exceeded four hectares. Today it is still very impressive and, given its location, is undoubtedly an oasis of greenery and a lung important for the country of Signa. This park is crisscrossed with paths and walkways, there are many species of forest trees including cypresses, holm oaks, pines and many others. In the last century and the first half of this, the park of the villa Morubaldini then has experienced a period of splendor. In the early 1800s it was built, it is thought as an ornamental, a curious octagonal tower of taste, as it was then in fashion, medieval. It has remained until today, there is, instead, the lake place nearby that had a central obelisk. There was also a circular fountain with four sirens, located in the garden that lies in front of the villa. Also in the park, at the end of the last century, there was a fence where there were two deer, one male and one female. Were also some statues and murals mosaic made with material of various kinds which also reflect the taste of the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. Although this villa, like that of Castelletti, was at the center of a huge farm in the 50s was 189 hectares. Farms included in the Renai, a Lecore Sant'Angelo, in Campi Bisenzio and S.Mauro. Well as in centuries past had to be a big farm, the early nineteenth century were part of the property Alberti more than twenty houses and many farms. Among the various properties are also listed three ponds, one of which is located in Prato, probably over the river Bisenzio Around the villa are located in buildings built in different times. One of these, now used for agricultural purposes, reveals that in the past has had a more important role than at present. The "kneeling" windows typical of Tuscan villas between the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, a buffered currently logged in with arched openings, suggest that a long time ago may have been the home to the farm. Even the interiors had to be very accurate, in fact there are remains of wall decorations and wooden ceilings with decorations too (from a report of the arch. Galletti of the Superintendent of monuments of Florence). Bibliography Signa between History and Tradition - by the Elementary School "Leonardo da Vinci" - Ed Tipolitografia Nova, 1990

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The School of Agriculture Castelletti

History The agricultural school Castelletti was founded in 1859 by Leopoldo Cattani Cavalcanti. In designing this type of school, seems to have been inspired by the work of Canon Charles Michelagnoli, director of "Innocents" in Florence, which had created in the Valdarno agricultural colonies. The "Innocent" was an institution where they were collected orphans or abandoned: it was decided to let them learn farm work because, as adults, they had a better chance of working. In these colonies the boys learned to work the earth and, at the same time, the elementary rules of education. This was a period in which they were born different schools popular in Italy, they were founded by private citizens who question seeks to educate poor children. Famous is the Apple Orchard school founded in 1835 by the Marquis Ridolfi. Driven so great humanitarian spirit, Leopoldo Cattani Cavalcanti picked the Boys in poor conditions with the intent to give them an education. The day of these was divided between study and work in the morning was devoted to work in the fields, the meter afternoon in the study. They were under the supervision of two adults, a "foreman" and a "housewife". Cattani Cavalcanti meanwhile took part in the War of Independence and to return such a different attitude to this school. In 1862, so the primitive existing agricultural school, from which you came subfactors, was added to the Agricultural Institute Philanthropic that formed the factors, that is, those people who have the task of leading a 'farm. At this school boys were admitted belonging to all social categories. Garibaldi, a few years later when he visited, appreciated the fact that "it is the poor guy could sit next to the guy rich" (a plaque commemorates this event at the Institute). Cattani sacrificed all his energies and a part of his enormous wealth for the good functioning of this school. We found, in fact, documents that demonstrate how he gradually sell plots of land of land, most likely to get the money he needed to grow his Institute (ASF). This one. that worked for about a hundred years, has had a great importance in the life of Signa, and its activity was famous beyond the borders of our country. In a document of 1869, he points out that it was one of only 69 technical schools then existing in Italy. thus proving the importance of its educational work. In 1882 he died Cattani Cavalcanti. He, having no heirs, he left some of his belongings to the Institute, assets that would allow this to stay alive until 1908. In the same year, however, given the importance that the school had already purchased, it was decided not to close it. As director of the school, in 1882, succeeded Marinelli-Riccardi, after him we had Dino Bandecchi and then his son Geoffrey. The original seat of the Institute was one of the houses located near the villa, probably the one near the bridge on the Bisenzio river. In a second phase was transferred in Street of the Arrighi and remained there until its closure. Reading a report written in 1885 by the Director Marinelli-Riccardi, we became aware of how it worked this school. It possessed of large dormitories that could contain up to a hundred pupils, a dining room, four study rooms and six lessons, a rich museum of "things" natural and agricultural and a library of over 500 volumes. The course duration was four years. Were taught, in addition to more traditional subjects such as Italian language, arithmetic, history and geography, materials suitable for the formation of a factor, such as country houses, rural accounting, agronomy, land surveying. This was the theoretical part of teaching, but there was also a practical part in which was given a huge importance. Pupils worked a farm of 14 acres, which was cultivated with vines, lawn and garden. They were also cultivated industrial plants such as flax, hemp and beetroot. Annexed to the Institute there was a stall with various species of animals that had to be treated by the same guys. There was also a breeding silkworms and so many mulberry trees were grown, the leaves of which are in fact the food of these animals. The boys who attended the school were forced to stay there to sleep and also to observe a very strict regulation, the statement attached to the report mentioned you can read the number of hours in which the students were engaged, in practice or had to dedicate to the study or to work throughout the whole day. When you came out of the office had to wear a uniform. This consisted of a red shirt, blue pants and white spats;-in-chief wore a hat like "partisan". This school has not always been structured as the report mentioned above. Following the general reform of the Italian school of 1928, it is believed there has been a renewal in the programs of the Institute of Castelletti. Indeed, we know that the duration of the school was brought to 5 years, 3 of whom were professional training and the other two technical school. The title which delivered after the five-year course was agricultural agent. Gained more importance for theoretical education at the expense of the practical, the students no longer worked the land. but followed step by step the work of the peasants. They must, however, do some experiments, such as prune or graft the plants, or other agricultural work. They were allowed to attend this school boys also external, that boys who were not required to reside in the Institute. In the 50s this school was closed and the causes are to be found in the changed social situation. The large farms were gradually disappearing and the property became more divided, why there was no domand of factors and subfactors. Came to an end as an institution that had contributed so much to the education of the inhabitants of Signa and its surroundings. Bibliography Signa between History and Tradition, edited Elementary School "Leonardo da Vinci of Signa, Ed Tipolitografia Nova, 1990

The School of Agriculture Castelletti - Leggi il resto

From the lake to the Florentine plain "Stone Gonfolina" Signa

This research was fully recovered from the study of Rino Sartori, linked to the history of Galluzzo, this introduction is needed to better describe the Lake of the plain of Florence, dating back thousands of years before Christ, to arrive at Pietr Gonfolina INTRODUCTION The current configuration of Tuscany to the south of the Arno, is the result of a long series of geological events that can be schematized in tectonic movements, ingression and marine transgressions, which began about 7 mil. years ago in the Miocene between the Tortonian and the Messinian and ended in the late Pleistocene, or Post-Villafranchian (from 0010-0125 but). GEOLOGICAL EVOLUTION In the period between the Tortonian and the Messinian a series of subsidence due to tectonic movements brought in all of Tuscany to the south of the Arno to the formation of lake basins some of which were later invaded in the middle-upper Messinian, the waters marine transgression of the sea area to the west of Tuscan Ridge The average power of some of these basins occurred, through some stretches of sea in a discontinuous way that, during the periods in which the power is interrupted took place of the boil- marine waters present giving rise to the formations of rock salt, as was the case in Saline di Volterra, and plaster containing the famous alabaster in Volterra and Castellina Marittima. At the end of the Miocene (Messinian), a tectonic uplift of much of southern Tuscany, caused a marine regression resulting in withdrawal of water before that had invaded the territories partially. In the early Pliocene (about 4 mil. Years ago) we have the most important event: a marine transgression caused by a tectonic subsidence of a large part of the area, led the coastline of the sea lapping the western edges of the Monte Albano of the Chianti Mountains and the eastern slope of the Val di Chiana (A.Bossio et al, 1993 pag.241) The maximum depth of this sea was estimated at about 150 meters in front of the Chianti Mountains and more further west (Canutis et al, 1966). The few land, in front of this new line of coast, formed a kind of archipelago in which he showed some islands such as those formed by the Montagnola, the Monti Pisani and the metalliferous hills. On this side of the new line of coast territory it was presented consists of wetlands, rocky outcrops scattered and not very high and hilly areas in which the various courses of water coming down, with north-south direction, transporting the materials eroded and then depositing them in near their outlet into the sea in the form of large cones. Among these waterways, those interested in the zones close to the current Galluzzo, one was the paleo-Mugnone that crossed the present territory of Florence, where there is now passed by the hill of San Gaggio (Dainelli G., , 1936, p.45.) 4 lapped the area of Galluzzo and he threw himself into the sea in the vicinity of St. Casciano forming a cone. Just south of San Casciano was thrown in this sea also the paleo-Greve in Montelupo Fiorentino flowed while the paleo-Bisenzio. What's Near S.Casciano Montespertoli, Lucardo and along the Virginio, to witness the existence of the ancient sea, you can still see the fields with round pebbles, gravels and marine fossils, which are the fluvio-marine, which were Initially the delta before, in the middle-upper Pliocene (1.7 m.a.) a marine regression, caused by a general uprising, did resurface the entire area and dislocate them at least 300 meters higher. Subsequently, in the Lower Pleistocene, the time interval ranging from 1.7 to 1 million years ago, by which time the sea had also retired from our area, took place the relaxing phase post-paroxysmal and Apennine orogenesis, as a result of this, he came to form large basins such as the Mugello, and the upper Valdarno, which will affect most of us, the Florence-Prato-Pistoia. As a result of these tectonic movements hydrography in our area underwent changes and some rivers of our country, such as the river Ema, the Greve and Mugnone instead of heading towards the ancient sea now retired, began to channel their wastewater of sediments in this large basin. Subsequent tectonic movements, they did raise the south-eastern part of the basin and in particular the current area of Florence. This lifting a particular interest in the areas south of the territory of Florence which underwent changes in their morphological appearance. Was the origin of the very modest pads Marignolle, San Gaggio, Poggio Imperiale, Arcetri and Torre del Gallo, who despite being the highest reaches 200 meters. They formed furrows as well as some dishes the valleys of San Gaggio Giramonte and Gamberaia dividing this hilly area in distinct areas: Bellosguardo to the west, Boboli-Poggio Imperiale in the center and Torre del Gallo-Monte alle Croci to the east. The fluvial-lacustrine deposits, consisting of sand and gravel, which before were at the margin of the basin or in the deltas of the rivers that fed it, now appear after lifting, exclusively in the central hilly area, covering the hill of Boboli-Belvedere , between the valleys of San Gaggio and Giramonte because elsewhere have been eroded. The flat little valley of the San Gaggio, which descends steeply towards Porta Romana, before the formation of the lake basin Florentine was supposed that he could correspond to a trace of the ancient course of the Mugnone also because, in this ancient valley, it does not appear as in the Pietraforte lateral areas higher, but instead appear Villafranchian deposits that seem to be trapped in a rut (Losacco U., 1957, p.20) 5 (Canutis et al 1966 pag.361) 3. Lacustrine deposits cover a large part of the side of Via Senese and sections of this material were observed during road works in Viale Machiavelli, in that of Poggio Imperiale and Via Benedetto Castelli. In 2000, in Via Martellini, during the reconstruction of a retaining wall of a soil could be seen in the same plot fluvio-lacustrine deposits consist of some rounded pebbles. Also in that route in the construction of an artesian well after the burglary of about 2.5 m. of land, were met fluvial-lacustrine deposits consist of pebbles, of considerable size, and gravels to a depth of about 0.8 m .. The use of pebbles (generally limestone) can be observed in the construction of a small section of the wall near the Via Martellini 4 of the same. The lake has provided training, around Porta Senese, at the Cemetery of Allori, and a fragment of molar Anancus arvernensis (these ancient Proboscidea, quite similar to the current elephants grazing in the countryside became extinct about three hundred thousand years ago and the skeletons similar forms, but these come from the Arno valley can be seen today in the Museum of Paleontology of the University of Florence. I detect hills that were to form in the area that interests us most, manifested also in areas to the east and created significant changes in the existing drainage network. The river Greve, who spent roughly along the route of the Via Senese to feed the basin, coming lift the hill of San Gaggio shifted its bed heading towards Scandicci to merge the hive. For this, the valley that joins Two Roads to Galluzzo lacks a collector. The stream Ema, well before he fed onto the basin where now is located in Bagno a Ripoli, swerved towards Ponte a Ema before impacting the Pietraforte, between Monte Monteripaldi and crossed puppies and then Galluzzo, became a tributary of Greve affecting the Alberese constituting the Monte Acuto on which stands the Certosa (BartoliniC. & Pranzini G., 1981 19882, see Fig.3). It is during or shortly after the lifting remodeled our territory, which occurred, according to tradition, the depletion of the waters of the sediment load, (along the plain FI-PO-PT in some places, these sediments, as shown by drilling, have a thickness of more than 600m.), through the close of Gonfolina. At the Boulder Gonfolina or Golfolina, located on the SS67 between Ponte a Signa and Brucianesi, a tablet records an essay by Leonardo da Vinci: "The Gonfolina, stone for ancient won with Mount Albano in the form of high embankment, which was holding filled up again this river so that before empty in the sea, which was after a walk of this stone, composes two large lakes, the first of which is where today you can see the finish city of Florence together with Prato and Pistoia. ". Before that some authors speculate that he was the emissary of the pelvis or in the area of Signa or in the area of the Grassina. This emissary took the name of Arno, the river of the same name that had been coming down from the Casentino, having captured the Sieve, the largest tributary of the basin in Florence. Particularly amazing is that reported by Raphael Gualtierotti in his description of the royal apparatus made in the noble city of Florence for coming, and for the wedding of the Serenissima Madame Christina of Lorraine wife of the Most Serene Don Ferdinando Medici third grand duke of Tuscany printed in Florence in 1589 and in which he writes: ... before the foundation of the city of Florence, which has many dubious has had at different times and different opinions, Because some wanted, which already was founded, and stuffed inhabitants, from the oldest Hercules said the Libyan [...] for the Tuscan city founded passing us, and dries the waters harmful, and particularly the course opened in the stagnant waters of the river Arno, making the breaking of Gonfolina: and the city of Florence gave the beginning ... Bibliography 1. A. BOSSIO et al (1993), Review of knowledge on the stratigraphy of the Tuscan neoautoctono. Mem Soc Geol It., 49 17-98, 1 f. "Essays in honor of L. Trevisan. " p.24 2. Bartolini C. PRANZINI & G. (1988), Evolution hydrography in the central-northern Tuscany-Bull Mus. St. Nat. Lunigiana 5-7: 79-83, Aulla (1986-1987). Bartolini C. PRANZINI & G. (1981), Plio-Quaternary evolution of the Arno basin drainage. Z. Geomorph. N.F., Suppl. - Bd 40, 77-91. 3. CANUTI P., G. PRANZINI SESTINI & G. (1966), Origin and environment of sedimentation of ciottolami Pliocene of San Casciano. Mem Soc Geol It., 5 (1966), 340-364. p.341. 4. DAINELLI G. (1936), The basin of Florence and its old lago.Collocaz. 56.2 Archive Dainelli. p.45. 5. Losacco U. (1957), landslides and geological constitution of the Florentine hills to the south of the Arno. Bull Geol Soc It. - 76. p.20. For Canutis et Alii cit. p.361.

From the lake to the Florentine plain "Stone Gonfolina" Signa - Leggi il resto

Who broke the dam of the Gonfolina a Signa was born as Florence and its suburbs

Who broke the dam of the Gonfolina a Signa was born as Florence and its suburbs Quaternary age the plain of Florence-Prato-Pistoia was occupied by a large lake which hung between the lines to detect the Monte Albano and Signa west of Monte Giove north and the first Chianti hills to the south. With the retreat of the waters the plains, located fifty meters above sea level, was dotted with many ponds and marshes that, especially in the area of Campi Bisenzio, Signa and Bagno a Ripoli, were a constant in the territory at least until the reclamation made in the eighteenth century. A section of the Museum of Geology and Paleontology describes admirably this period of prehistory in Tuscany, with cards and finds. It is believed that at the confluence of the Arno and river Mugnone there was already a Villanovan settlement between the tenth and eighth centuries a.c.. Between the seventh and sixth centuries a.c. The Etruscans must have discovered and used the easy ford of the River Arno at the said junction, where even the plain was closer to the vicinity of the hills from the north and south. At that point they probably built a bridge or a ferry service, which was to be a dozen meters from Ponte Vecchio, in the ford tighter. The Etruscans they preferred not to found cities on the plain for reasons of defense (by foreign armies and flooding) and settled about six kilometers from the ford on a hill, the birthplace of the fortified center of Vipsul, today Fiesole, well connected a road that linked all the major Etruscan centers Emilia to Lazio. There are reports of various Etruscan finds in Artimino since the eighteenth century. Since the early 60's have been found in the territory of various archaeological evidence attesting to such Artimino there was an Etruscan settlement, rather important, and this at least according to the findings made by the excavations conducted in the immediate vicinity of the village, the town, with also a sacred area, brought to light near the "Pagers" Medici, was probably organized around a kind of decumano corresponding to the ridge that connects the walled village with the Villa Medici. Note how the hill on which the house was built it was known as "Artimino", suggesting the presence of ancient remains. In addition necropolis have been found in different areas more or less close including the Necropolis of Prato Rosello with rather well-preserved tombs, in which they found important findings kept in the Archaeological Museum of Artimino. However, the city center was to be the reference point of a wider area, given also the findings of Comeana (Tombs of Boschetti and mound Montefortini), Montereggi (at limit Arno) and Pietramarina (extra-urban sanctuary and fortification walls on top of Montalbano). The presence of an Etruscan city in Artimino (estimated period X century a.c.) makes clear the importance of this area to the North-South relations, Tuscia between real and settlements sub-Apennines and beyond, up to Marzabotto through the area of Pistoia, and the pass of Porretta. The discovery of the Etruscan city of Gonfienti at Prato, will have to rethink the whole territorial system of the Etruscan presence north of the Arno that seems to assume importance not only on the local and localize all the edges of the plain Florence-Prato-Pistoia (Sesto Fiorentino , Gonfienti, Fiesole, Artimino, Comeana). This does not preclude, therefore, that the area where there is now the Castle of Signa, was initially Etruscan. THE STONE GOLFOLINA There are many legends about the Golfolina Boulder, also said “Stone of the Fairy”, believed, wrongly, a simple stone. It is instead of a "Natural Monument" among the oldest on earth. One of several legends in the league, "What if Noah had landed in Tuscany?" (Period of Noah's Ark about 2100 a.c.) A study carried out by Dr. Elena GIANNARELLI Jewish studies in Florence have been the subject of a conference at the Faculty of Letters of the local university on Sept. 12. Distinguished scholars have outlined important figures in this specific field and focused problems and issues debated by the '400 to date regarding the history, the culture, the language of those that John Paul II calls "our elder brothers." Among the many stimuli given away to those in attendance that day has resurfaced an old myth, has long been known to historians and to insiders, worthy of being narrated to the general public. Dear Tuscan Etruscan and Florentines loved ones, we can add to our reasons of pride to be direct descendants of Noah. Here's how things are. In 1497 Giovanni Nanni, ie Annius of Viterbo, he wrote a work entitled Antiquitatum Variarum books (books of various antiques). The author claimed to have found the texts of Berosus the Chaldean, in which it was stated as Noah, after the flood had stopped in Etruria and I had founded a kingdom. One of the descendants, Hercules, had a son, Thuscus, which gave the name to the region: Tuscany so it would be of Aramaic origin. As pointed out by prof. Paul Marrassini in its report, it was a way to assert the primacy of civilization to the East against Greece and Rome. Struggled in fact in the culture of the end of '400 The question of who were the oldest languages and the most ancient cultural expressions. Of course, the classical world of Greek origin and inherited from Rome, did the lion's share. Florence, daughter of the City and considered to be founded by the Romans, it was called the New Athens and it imposed on the political level, the need to tune in to what was decided on the banks of the Tiber. In contrast to all this, perhaps with a reference to what has been theorized in the early Christian apologetics of the second century, is exalted Semitic cultures and those that the Greeks, with obvious disdain, called "barbarians." The Hebrew itself, tied to a specific cultural tradition, was later supplanted in this reconstruction, Aramaic, the language defined as the oldest ever. It was an even more determined to break away from Rome, regain Eastern origins and reclaim their independence and freedom. This strange story, that there is clarified by a historian of philosophy and culture, Alessandro D'Alessandro, who has studied Giambattista Gelli, author in 1544 of a pamphlet on the origin of Florence, and the canon Laurentian Pier Francesco Giambullari, whose nozzle, a dialogue whose protagonist is the same Gelli, was dedicated in 1546 precisely to these issues. The Florentine originates from the Etruscan language, which evil can be understood without knowledge of Hebrew and Chaldean. The latter would have been the original language, spoken by Abraham, and perhaps from Adam, a dialect of Aramaic, which could be the Biblical Aramaic or Syriac. Noah in Tuscany is the direct line that makes this possible. The myth appeared for the first time in the festive atmosphere of the wedding of Cosimo I and Eleonora of Toledo (1539), when Gelli Giambullari conceived and described the solemn entertainments. A large procession, full of symbols, moved through the streets of the City Flower: Tuscan towns, personified, swore allegiance to Cosimo and its policy. They proudly boasted their ancient origin: Fiesole, built by the son of Noah, Volterra, founded by Patriarch identified with Jano or two-faced Janus of the Latins; Arezzo, in whose name is played back to Aredia or Arezia, the wife of Noah, placed where the Arno "disdainful twists her nose ', heading toward Florence. And so on, in a number of ways in which the Giambullari shows off his creativity in describing the twelve Etruscan. To give an idea here is the way in which it is presented Cortona: "Towards the sky rises a vague pleasant hill / over what encircled by high walls around / she who now pleased the core itself and gives you / Crotone Egittio and called Cortona. " Cortona is derived from the Egyptian Crotone. Yeah, because Noah's Ark had arrived from Mount Aram directly on the Tiber, in Tuscia. The good patriarch had founded his kingdom to his death bad principles were followed until they came out of Egypt The Avengers: Crotone and especially the Egyptian Hercules or Libius. It was this man, wise man of the same name and different from the hero of the twelve labors, to establish Florence. From Fiesole contemplated the swamp below and decided to reclaim his way. He cut with little effort on the Boulder Golfolina, on which thousands of years after they weigh you in vain Leonardo da Vinci, and was ready the site of the future capital. He also gave the name to the river Arno, which in Aramaic means "victorious lion" and the symbol of the city, the Marzocco is nothing if not fair Herculean. So the Tuscan towns in that far recognized in 1539 Cosimo, a descendant of those ancient, the right to unify them under his power, no matter what he thought of Rome. The operation was not only political, but cultural: the true knowledge was that of the East, of the Semites, the Bible, based on the word of God and not on hearsay and empiricism of the Greeks and Latins. All this was brought to Noah in Tuscany and elsewhere. Not by chance was he who taught men the cultivation of the vine. Ark come down to us there had to be a branch of the best Another legend alloy to Hercules (period between the twelfth and eighth centuries a.c.) It is said that Hercules returning from Spain, after the completion of the tenth labor, he settled for a time in Tuscany, becoming king of the Etruscans. To meet the needs of local residents, the hero destroyed the natural dam that prevented the flow of water from the plain of the Arno in Florence, creating the throat of Gonfolina. Another legend of the alloy to Hannibal (period II century a.c.) Also according to the ancient historical Florentine - Giovanni Villani, Scipione Admired and Borghini - the rock called "the Gonfolina", blocking the course of the Arno contributing to the swamping of the entire region, were the ancient Romans to remove it, allowing a first and partial remediation of the agricultural plain and the subsequent colonization of the territory. The Repetti in his Physical Geography Historical Dictionary of Tuscany, is however of the opinion that the rock has been eroded by the Gonfolina incessant water and that there was a human intervention. In addition to the stories of Hercules and the Romans there are many popular myths and legends associated with this place: it is said that the masons who have dared to stake out the great stone have broken their tools against the rock, harder than any metal alloy . Even the Germans during the Second World War, they failed to blow up the boulder with the charges. Some also tell that the place is inhabited by fairies similar to elves - hence the name Stone of the Fairy - and perhaps the golden hen buried by Castruccio Castracani. The passage of the road in the direction of Empoli, just below the large boulder, is a fairly recent creation. The royal road of Pisa, plotted on the left bank of the Arno, was made carriageway under the Grand Duchy of Leopold II, after the mid-eighteenth century. In ancient times the provincial road known under the name of military road Pisa, passed through the Castle Malmantile. From the Dictionary of Repetti Gonfolina, or Golfolina (Petra Gulfolina) in Val d'Arno in Florence between Porto di Mezzo in Signa, Montelupo Sanminiatello above. - This name has stuck to closed, ie close of termination of the Val d'Arno in Florence, and where for a tortuous passage between the cliffs of hard rock that line to the right of the hillocks of Artimino Barco, and left those of Malmantile, the river has opened the way into the Val d'Arno lower. So the ancient writers named this place the Strait of Stone Golfolina, a phrase that in three words gives to know the quality of the site, the nature of the terrain, and the Gonfo, or a gulf coast where formed in ancient times: I mean, first of that nature more than art scalzasse those rocks that were obstacles in its path, and the impetus of the water. The hill on which lies the castle and palace of the same name presents in the form of a bastion to the upper Strait less cramped Golfolina, whence he could probably derive the name of Artimino, almost Arctus minor. It is credible that the sawdust is well along the bosom of Golfolina is the work all or almost all of nature, rather than cut art, since it was believed by many historians, since good Villani. It was perhaps the first to opine that these cutting Golfolina had been driven by the need to gush from the pelvis around Florence stagnant water, so such a labor of engraving of the Stone Golfolina was recalled in histories of Florence by Piero Boninsegni, by Bartolommeo della Scala, and the dall'Ammirato Borghini. For many the same way they continued to assume the same Villani, that Castruccio was so much credulous fool to let experts from the masters engineers, who could not be with a big wall up the river Arno to the close of the Stone Golfolina to enlarge Florence, the decline of Arno from Florence in 150 was down there arms, and so he left to do that company. - (G. Villani, Cronic. Lib. IX. Cap.335). The earliest remembrance of Cotesta closed, under the name of Stone Gulfolina find it in un'istrumento of 9 May 1124, with whom he Adimaro Ubaldino son of an exchange of goods with Archpriest John and in charge of the cathedral of S. John and S. Reparata of Florence, the effect of which yielded to Chapter Ubaldino some vineyards, lands etc.. Held by Bernardo Bernardo archdeacon son of another, and received in return two bushels of wooded land, located on the Rio Maggiore, which debouched to Petram Gulfolinam. (LAMI, Mon. Eccl. Flor. T.II. pag.1441). In fact all that the mouth was covered with low scrub, oak and pine forests that formed, the pine woods to the right de 'Frescobaldi, then the Regio Parco di Artimino, while on the left, to where the brook runs of Colle greater, it retains the name Selve of the suppressed monastery of the friars of the Carmelite Congregation of Mantua, at the nearby parish church, the Villa Salviati, who welcomed among many distinct characters Galileo Galilei, the magnificent mansion of the Marquis Pucci Bellosguardo, already de 'Medici, to that of Luciano Antinori, located between the Selve, the Malmantile and Golfolina, etc.. In the narrowest part of the Strait of Golfolina have existed for a long time many quarries of sandstone, Similar for grain, color and use that Fiesole, for which it is sought to architectural uses, and by the Arno, the Ombrone Pistoia its confluence with the entrance of the Golfolina, water is sent to Florence, Pisa, Livorno, Pistoia and in various other cities of Tuscany. The learned John Targioni - Tozzetti examining the structure of the rocks that make up the backbone of the mountains outside of Artimino and Gonfolina, and the quarries of sandstone laid open by a remote age, observed that the direction is layered models with the head Once in grecale and the base to libeccio; that they vary remarkably between them in height, in texture and in the thickness of grain, whence derive essentially boulders of different quality. In general, however, the sandstone Gonfolina is less fine-grained and less uniform than that of Fiesole, enclosing well often heterogeneous fragments, much like that of other stones, as vegetables of fossils, including the above-mentioned naturalist responses of charred materials under the aspect of coal. (C Targioni Travel. T. I.) With minor sandstone alternating layers of marl and shale, ie bisciajo. - On the outside of the mountain many times the stone is replaced by layers of a siliceous conglomerate composed of small gravel of varying quality and colors, what rock having a figure SIMILAR to the legume called grass pea, was appealed by the ancient Tuscan stone litologi cicerchina, corresponding to a pudinga, conglomerate or coarse sandstone. At the beginning of the close of Gonfolina I said that flows into the Arno river Ombrone Pistoia, which passed after the Poggio a Caiano enters a narrow holes skirting the hills to the right of Artimino and Comeana, while on the left the hills bordering the Signa The road Regia Pisan plotted on the left bank along the winding bed of the Arno in cross Gonfolina, was made carriageway, under the Grand Duke Francesco II, after the middle of the eighteenth century, anoraks, in earlier times the main street, known then under the word of Pisa military road, otherwise known as Malmantile, passed through the mountain in front of the castle which gave an argument to playful poem of Lippi, and returned Arno (WRONG: San Miniatello at Montelupo) on the post road in Montelupo. Not that until then had not been open a road to a trend of the current at R. Post Pisa. Yes, of course it will exist until by 1369, the year in which the Signoria of Florence, he concluded a treaty with the government of Pisa, whose mercy between the two peoples were re-established the ancient reliefs of respettive merchandise: so that having been re-opened to the woods and goods of Fiorentini the Port of Pisa, the Senators (says the Admired) for convenience of merchants gave orders to the road that passes along Golfolina Arno, lest the carts will go comfortably. - But, whether the orders were not executed with much accuracy, or with the passage of time the road of Golfolina returned to be impassable by tanks more than that paved the Malmantile, since this was observed by the prelodato Targioni Tozzetti in 1742, when he said: "The way by which I passed the plate in Montelupo is sufficiently large and comfortable flat, with only around Latomies of Golfolina is somewhat precipitous and impassable to carriages, but with little expense you could reduce usable, and then you would be much less steep and rough the other. " - See VIA R. POST PISANA. 'WAS SO THE LEGEND OF ANY NATURE OR HAVE A MINIMUM OF TRUTH'? The lake that covered the whole of the current city of Florence - Prato - Pistoia was born about a million years ago. The emissaries were different from the present, and the only point where the river emptied (estuary) was the hold of Gonfolina near Signa, about 50 meters high. The stagnant water in summer, while in winter and rainy escaped from the narrow pouring in the nearby sea that existed near the present Empoli. He was saying this about Leonardo da Vinci, frequent visitor and observer of the Boulder Gonfolina: "The Gonfolina, stone for ancient won with Mount Albano in the form of high embankment, which was holding ringorgato this river so that before versassi in the sea, which was to walk after this rock, componeva two large lakes, of which the first is where you see today finish the city of Florence together with Prato and Pistoia. "). About 100,000 years A.C. for a variety of tectonic movements that made the current trace Florence, the sea to go and make changes throughout the territory in question you can think of that you have not created an opening in the dam's natural Gonfolina, bringing the level of the lake on a straight- much lower in the meantime creating the birth dell'immissario river Arno and paving the way of his path from Gonfolina to Pisa. But nevertheless continue to be a stagnant lake where here and there as sprouting hills Artimino and Signa. The Etruscans around 1000 A.C., the people who built their own city above the waters of the rivers, built the town of Artimino and Fiesole. Strategically speaking, I hypothesize that they also built the town of Signa point of view of the whole plain of Florence, where the human eye could see so clear what are now the cities of Florence, Prato and Pistoia. It is said that between the town of Signa and the Fiesole reports were done by the sun's rays hitting a mirror. And here we introduce the first Egyptian legend of Hercules or Libius which, as mentioned above, with little effort made to ensure that the hold Gonfolina was cleaned up by the large boulders that blocked the smooth flow of water further lowering the lake level, although still to remain swamps and small lakes, as a Signa, virtually an island. But it may also be that to give a further coat to the flow of water was Hercules, those of the twelve labors, the name may have been confused with the first through the legends. Moreover what are the legends: the folk legends have never invented by a single person, but to their invention contribute more and more people, with the passage of time, become a true fact in a fact more and more legendary. The legends never tell the facts purely fictional but always contain an element of truth that is transformed into fantasy because men always want to discover the cause of certain facts that are not familiar with and therefore try to explain them with imagination. Now we get to the last legend, that of Hannibal. While this may have some truth as the others, but I would stress that the movement of these boulders, large and small are not the result of small efforts, but there is all the work of man though made at different times and with different outfits. The only sure thing is that you can touch and see with their eyes is that of Boulder Gonfolina is still there for millions of years, not yet considered, as you should, Natural Monument of the oldest in the world and how to say Giambullari "by breaking the Gonfolina: and the city of Florence gave the beginning ..."

Who broke the dam of the Gonfolina a Signa was born as Florence and its suburbs - Leggi il resto

Signa: City 'Etruscan or Roman?

As we have already written, the plain of Quaternary age Florence-Prato-Pistoia was occupied by a large lake which hung between the lines to detect the Monte Albano and Signa west of Monte Giove north and the hills of Chianti south. With the retreat of the waters the plains, located fifty meters above sea level, was dotted with many ponds and marshes that, especially in the area of Campi Bisenzio, Signa and Bagno a Ripoli, were a constant in the territory at least until the reclamation made in the eighteenth century. A section of the Museum of Geology and Paleontology describes admirably this period of prehistory in Tuscany, with cards and finds. It is believed that at the confluence of the Arno Mugnone there was already a Villanovan settlement between the tenth and eighth centuries BC Between the seventh and sixth centuries BC The Etruscans must have discovered and used the easy ford of the River Arno at the said junction, where even the plain was closer to the vicinity of the hills from the north and south. At that point they probably built a bridge or a ferry service, which was to be a dozen meters from Ponte Vecchio, in the ford tighter. The Etruscans they preferred not to found cities on the plain for reasons of defense (by foreign armies and flooding) and settled about six kilometers from the ford on a hill, the birthplace of the fortified center of Vipsul, today Fiesole, well connected a road that linked all the major Etruscan centers Emilia to Lazio. There are reports of various Etruscan finds in Artimino since the eighteenth century. Since the early 60's have been found in the territory of various archaeological evidence attesting to such Artimino there was an Etruscan settlement, rather important, and this at least according to the findings made by the excavations conducted in the immediate vicinity of the village, the town, with also a sacred area, brought to light near the "Pagers" Medici, was probably organized around a kind of decumano corresponding to the ridge that connects the walled village with the Villa Medici. Note how the hill on which the house was built it was known as "Artimino", suggesting the presence of ancient remains. In addition necropolis have been found in different areas more or less close including the Necropolis of Prato Roselle with rather well-preserved tombs, in which they found important findings kept in the Archaeological Museum of Artimino. However, the city center was to be the reference point of a wider area, given also the findings of Comeana (Tombs of Boschetti and mound Montefortini), Montereggi (at limit Arno) and Pietramarina (extra-urban sanctuary and fortification walls on top of Montalbano). The presence of an Etruscan city in Artimino (estimated period X century BC) makes clear the importance of this area to the North-South relations, Tuscia between real and settlements sub-Apennines and beyond, up to Marzabotto through the area of Pistoia, and the pass of Porretta. The discovery of the Etruscan city of Gonfienti at Prato, will have to rethink the whole territorial system of the Etruscan presence north of the Arno that seems to assume importance not only on the local and localize all the edges of the plain Florence-Prato-Pistoia (Sesto Fiorentino , Gonfienti, Fiesole, Artimino, Comeana). This does not preclude, therefore, that the area where there is now the Castle of Signa, was initially Etruscan. Under these assumptions to get there in an indirect way by asking a few assumptions: The small town of Artimino is surrounded by hills and then not with great visuals, it seems impossible that they have built a small fort on the hill where the view obtained from Signa covers the entire plain of Florence, the Arno River and its tributaries, the lake and on the marshes surrounding the current Signa. From the Signa 'communications' mirror could be made with the Etruscan town of Fiesole, with Gonfienti, Comeana, Carmignano, etc; The Etruscans did not build their cities near rivers, but preferred to build on top of them, may have been the first to exploit the natural harbor of the Signa Artimino remained a small village, while Signa in time became a municipality, reported to ancient times, much larger. Unfortunately, with the arrival of the Romans, everything that existed before, was razed to the ground and, using the existing foundation, we reconstructed above. To know then if Signa was an Etruscan town and answer this question, it would be necessary to destroy the castle and to excavate beneath the foundations! We remain in doubt and hope that sooner or later somewhere in the territory of an excavation random, is able to give us a definitive answer.

Signa: City 'Etruscan or Roman? - Leggi il resto

Why at the beginning of the eighth century there was a castle in Signa and three churches?

The walls of the Castle of Signa surround the oldest part of the city and was formed after the eighteenth century. It is located in the highest part of the country, on the right bank of the Arno River near the confluence with the river Ombrone, in an area of great strategic importance. Despite the changes that have occurred over the centuries consisted of a circle of walls quite schematic and ovoid, built approximately in the seventh century to defend themselves from the depredations of marauding barbarians, and in particular, of what happened in 825 when Vikings climbed some vessels to prey on the Arno the palace of the Bishop of Fiesole. The walls are partly destroyed and still only visible in some areas of the country as in the convent of Passionist Sisters have remained intact while four tall towers (including the Tower and the Tower of the North). The Castle of Signa originally had three doors, located at strategic points for the safety of the country: the port of San Miniato, the only extant, in the south-west and still adorned with the coats of arms of the City of Florence, of the house of Anjou and the Guelph; the door of Via Dante Alighieri in the north-east of which, despite having been destroyed, you can see some remains; port via the Clock, designed to allow communication between the Castle and the bridge over the Arno. CHURCH OF SAINT MARY OF THE ASSUMPTION We know very little about the origin of the church dedicated to the Assumption. The remains of walls found below the floor of the church would suggest to a settlement of Etruscan or Roman. It is hypothesized the existence of Santa Maria early as the seventh century, while in 746, according to the opinion expressed by the prior Gaetano Giannini in his "History of the rectors of the Church of the Castle", a prominent representative of the family of Contarini in Venice covered the rector. What is certain is that in 978 the Countess Willa, mother of Hugh Marquis of Tuscany, it was a gift to the Badia Fiorentina, which she founded in the same year and also entitled, in addition to St. Stephen the first martyr, to Santa Maria Assunta. Around the patronage arose long contrasts, so much so that Pope Honorius III in 1211 "forced men of Castel di Signa to receive the rector of their church by the abbot and monks of the Badia Fiorentina". The anomaly, compared to those times, is a church within the walls of a castle. In fact, during the same period were built the churches of St. John the Baptist and St. Lawrence, both outside the castle although close to the same. CHURCH OF ST JOHN THE BAPTIST The east side of the main square is dominated by the large stone façade of the Romanesque church of San Giovanni Battista, which, since ancient times, seems to have been reserved the task of administering the sacrament of Baptism. Determination was shown in the presence of an ancient fountain, still in place in 1724, an element often found close to the parish churches, as was used for the water supply required for the sacrament. The building seems to be built between the seventh and ninth centuries. In July 964 St. John together with the parish church of San Lorenzo was donated by Bishop Raimbaut Chapter Florence. Since 1568, the title of the rectory, with which until then had always cited both, seems to lie with the one church of St. John. CHURCH OF SAN LORENZO Mentioned for the first time in a document dell'866, in 964 was donated by Bishop Raimbaut Chapter Florentine together with the Church of St. John the Baptist. The presence of tombs called the "cappuccino" and amphora, found during recent restoration work carried out by Vanni Desideri, suggests that the area on which the church was built was already used as a burial ground in the IV-VI century. Could only be administered in the nearby church dedicated to St. John Battista.Prima the year one thousand resulted parish church, whose jurisdiction extended, according to the Repetti, on both banks of the Arno. The ancient parish was composed of fourteen parishes. As San Lorenzo is constantly remembered as a parish church, at least up to 1568, none of the documents retrieved so far there attests to the presence of a baptismal font. However, it seems unlikely that the sacrament On 16 April 1224 a parchment of Chapter Florentine recalls the presence of a priest by the name of Conrad. The priest intimated to the parish priests of the churches suffragan to comply with the obligation to participate with their faithful to the functions that were celebrated at the church, threatening them with excommunication. In 1243, on the occasion of the election of the new parish priest, proposed the cathedral on his way to Signa with the express purpose of reaffirming the authority of San Lorenzo of the canons of St. John. The church's name appears again in the privilege of Otto III and in a "Charter offersionis" of 1304. Deepening the research we found that the countries bordering the countryside as Montelupo and Capraia limit, Fields, Carmignano and Poggio a Caiano or neighboring countries, but of some importance in the period preceding the Middle Ages as Fucecchio, Certaldo, Holy Cross and others, had only one church, in some cases both. At this point it is natural to wonder why, see you then to make some educated guesses: the hill of Signa was then a strategic point from the military point of view, that statement; if they were the Etruscans the first to make a fort, the Romans, as their custom, razed the existing and reconstructed over there; For this reason, since the Romans (in the seventh century) Catholics, they would build a church within the walls; it is also assumed that being a joint strategic economic Signa high-value, going for it is the river Arno with its lake navigable both together Ombrone (which is also navigable) and to Bisenzio, winding also many main roads that directed towards all directions, inside the walls and through the canons, was born a school with a particular address to the trade and all its derivatives; becoming a hub so important it is believed that the city, offering new job for all follow-up actions, has been a place of pilgrimage and hence the construction of two churches that were used, as well as for prayer, also for the temporary admission of pilgrims. It 'also a duty to observe how in the territory of Signa of the time (we're talking before 1000) there were these other churches: a. Asked to San Miniato Unknown is the date of foundation. According to the opinion of the Lami church already existed before the eleventh century. b. Church of St. Peter in Lecore The first document dates from Saint Peter reminds a Lecore all'866. In 964 still appears within the aforementioned donation of Bishop Raimbaut Chapter Florence. It was not until the fifteenth century to find the church cited as a priory. The Lami remember that in 1435 it became the Apostolic census: that involved the interference of the popes on the appointment of parish priests. The patronage passed from family to Mazzinghi Riccardi, after the Grand Duke of Tuscany and finally to the bishop of the diocese. The church, according to news reports in the pastoral visit of May 6, 1590, performed by Alessandro de Medici, was under the patronage of the families of Florence and Fleas Losi of fields. c. Church of Sant'Angelo a Lecore On the site now occupied by the church was formerly a chapel dedicated to St. Michael the Archangel. Not far away were found the remains of what was to be the primitive building parish dedicated to Saint Blaise, according to tradition, as is also apparent from the Tenth papal relating to this place. Around the year one thousand the church already belonged to the Bishop of Florence. Subsequently, the patronage passed from fleas and Money Florentine nuns of St. Ursula and Carnesecchi, and finally, in 1693, became the property of the Bardi of Vernio. The church received the title of the priory in 1712. The complex suffered, therefore, a considerable restoration in 1943. Delving into the topic we have verified that no citizen of the era in question, as Fiesole, Florence, Pescia, Pistoia, Prato, Empoli, Castelfiorentino, Certaldo, just to mention the most important had no more than two churches. This suggests that Signa was, even before the nascent city of Florence, a landmark strategic and populous, to all the neighboring cities and beyond, and, therefore, is to assume that the navigation of the river Arno to and from Pisa began towards the seventh century, if not before.

Why at the beginning of the eighth century there was a castle in Signa and three churches? - Leggi il resto

Because at the end of the ninth century churches and the Castle of Signa were donated to the Chapter Florentine

Because at the end of the ninth century churches and the Castle of Signa were donated to the Chapter Florentine As is known to all those who have read the story of Signa, they know perfectly well that in July 964 the bishop Raimbaldo usufruct granted to the rectory of the parish church of Saints Lorenzo and Giovanni di Signa, with its dependencies and its proceeds and the obligation to care about the divine service, while the Countess Willa, mother of Hugh the Great of Tuscany, donated by the act of December 23, 977, written in Pisa, at the Badia Fiorentina, the Church of Santa Maria in Castello di Signa with his court and forty mansi and annexed it. Both the Bishop Raimbaldo, Countess Willa is that the same Ugo of Tuscany donated between 960 and 1000 several churches, with their courts, their appurtenances. In practice and in essence Chapter Fiorentino became owner of a large part of the countryside that surrounded him, then giving in concession to the noble Florentine families of the countryside or the land with what was on it (churches, castles, lakes, houses, weirs, etc. ). But it was true that donation came from the heart? Or was it a political era? In another part of the answer to this question right.

Because at the end of the ninth century churches and the Castle of Signa were donated to the Chapter Florentine - Leggi il resto

What family was head of the Castello di Signa?

We take this small paragraph from Wikipedia: "Rare are the documents concerning Signa in the period between the barbarian invasions and domination of the Franks. As reported by the historian Salvi in ​​"The History of Pistoia of the year 1656", the Emperor Charlemagne, after signing a peace treaty in Pistoia, he went to Florence, and presented the captain of the castle court Mainetto Fabroni of Signa. Even with regard to this fact have been raised doubts about the veracity of what happened as the same historian V. Capponi has argued that the family of Mainetto would not be reached before 1344 Signa " Doing the research we came across the text myself, where Augustine Ademollo and Luigi Passerini are among the leading researchers and historians of the nineteenth century. MARIETIA DE 'RICCI OR FLORENCE AT THE TIME OF THE SIEGE HISTORICAL TALE OF AGOSTINO ADEMOLLO SECOND EDITION WITH CORRECTIONS AND ADDITIONS TO CARE Di LUIGI PASSERINI FLORENCE PLANT LIGHT I845   In Book V p. 1641, we read about the family Mori Ubaldini: "I Mori Ubaldini descended from a family known for Aldobrandinelli, powerful in Signa, where he had a turreted palace surrounded by an enclosure of walls and towers. Messer Bandinello Aldobrandinelli was one of the Captains of the Florentines at the Battle of Montaperti and rider to 'spur of gold', and he was born Ubaldino father of Brother Morando Bishop of Fano and then Cagli in 1259, was that of John Gonfaloniere in 1300, More and from which they took the descendants of the surname, which he won the Priory in 1311, 1326, 1332, and 1335. " So in a lucky shot we found: 1) That the Family Aldobrandinelli around the year 1000 was the owner of the Castle; 2) What are its direct descendants of the Moors Ubaldinis whose family we have always been known to be originally from Signa; 3) What was the son of Fra Morando Ubaldino Aldobrandinelli and not of Boncompagno from Signa as someone has written several texts, despite strong doubts. We can conclude that the Family Mori Ubaldini, which we will better elsewhere on this site, was the most important family of Signa beginning of the second millennium.

What family was head of the Castello di Signa? - Leggi il resto

Why Signa is called so?

There are several doubts etymological origin of "Signa" was founded by the Etruscans if the names would be more likely Aisinial, Eisil and Esinius while if founded by the Romans exine, Exinea, Esinea and Sinea. Through recent studies it was found that the last hypothesis, that concerning its Roman origin, it might be historically more reliable than that of the Etruscans. In the scriptures, the following of which we are aware, written in Latin, the word stands Exinea, which translated into Italian does not match the word Signa: When the bishop Raimbaut leaves the usufruct of the rectory Florentine church of Saints Lorenzo and Giovanni di Signa, the name of the city is Exinea and remains so until 998 when Otto III confirmed these possessions. The March 4, 1034 Teuzo of Lepizo was donated to the church rectory of St. Michael in Lecore with many goods to Lecore, Olmetolo, Arena, Floor to Exinea. In November 1036 the bishop Atto confirmed chapter all his possessions in this privilege Exinea and addressed to Pope Benedict IX, under whose protection poses the rectory. The December 28, 1076 Gregory VII, who was in Florence, promulgated a bubble in favor of the canons confirming all their possessions: "... pratum Regis, Regis ... Campum Curtem Sancti Andree ... Curtem de Quinto, Curtem de Cinctoria ... plebem de Exinea ... terram Sancti Proculi, Curtem de Lacu Campum nichilominus Randi ... » So we have certainty that up to 1076 the city was called Exinea in Latin and which has no direct meaning with Signa. I noticed the page for the Signa have shown that during the period beginning late eleventh century XII on our territory called EXINEA there was in addition to a large number of Notaries, also a school. Vocabulary From Latin / Italian are: signum signum, significant Neutral Curious Plural Name Genitive Dative Accusative Vocative Ablative signum significant signo signum signum signo signa signorum signis signa signa signis signum / signa plural signum, significant footprint (s.f.) teaches (s.f.) flag (s.f.) signal (s.m.) sign (s.m.) Seal (s.m.) symbol (s.m.) character (s.m.) 1 sign, mark, mark 2 clue, try 3 (milit.) signal, order, command 4 flag, banner, teaches military 5 cohort, handpiece, troop, military department 6 watchword 7 omen, symptom 8 statue, image, figure 9 Seal 10 constellation, star, sign of the zodiac 11 epithet, nickname. We have highlighted the words that make us think of a Latin name that give meaning to what we're looking for. We hypothesize that "seals" that is, "the signa" of Notaries which bloomed like flies in that time have given the name to the city that, in answer to Esinea, does not stray from its pronunciation

Why Signa is called so? - Leggi il resto

The families that originate from the town of Signa

Before you begin this brief introduction to the families whose lineage is from Signa is necessary to make some assumptions: 1. Thousands of years ago a lake covered the entire basin of Florence - Prato and Pistoia, and the only outlet is known where there is now the Gonfolina of Boulder, whose natural dam had to be 60 meters high. Many legends with resonant names like Hannibal, Hercules returning from a hard, another Hercules, son of Noah and on and on have been written about those who helped to dismantle this dam. My personal opinion is that hundreds of thousands of years ago the earth has had a start that the hills are raised or lowered, the sea near Empoi retired, all this disruption has created a gap that has given rise to continuation of the river Arno. The erosion by the currents and why not, with the help of man, said gap has widened, the lake has dried up, giving rise to the plain of Florence - Prato - Pistoia. Now that the man was Etruscan or Roman is not important in this context, although the undersigned is inclined to the first hypothesis, I have left imprinted is that the only thing that has remained is the Boulder of Gonfolina, and praised observed in centuries by people of culture. 2.In the second and final premise, it is necessary to point out that the town of Signa, since it arose, and even in recent times, had his territory, going back to the composition of Plover di Signa namely St. Lawrence and St. John the Baptist, which included the following dependencies: 1. S. Mary Castle Signa; 2. S. Maria Lamole, or Brucianese (over the road along the Golfolina Director); 3. S. Martin in Gangalandi, Provost, with the outbuildings of S. Mariano in Celatico and S. Michele in Mont'Oriandi; 4. S. Mauro S. Moro in Signa; 5. S. Illumination Signa with the adjoining St. Mommè, (now St. Roch), detached from the people of Luciano; 6. S. Peter Lecore; 7. S. Angel Lecore with the adjoining St. Biagio; 8. S. Stefano in Calcinaja 9. SS. Vito and Modesto in Fior di Selva (Malmantile) with the adjoining St. Michael Luciano. A vast area divided by the Arno river, which then included the present, Signa Lastra a Signa with all their fractions as, Lecore, San Mauro, Malmantile, Ponte a Signa, Porto di Mezzo, Brucianesi and others that I am not here to remember. In these places where before there was nothing, were built small villages, castles, small communities and, coincidentally the only community larger than the others was Signa with a castle and three churches in 'VIII century. Without these necessary preconditions the research we have done has only been done on the Internet obtaining an archive of old books, cards, information, thanks to the careful reading of the Ceramelli-Papiani, dell'Ademollo-Passerini and site of Carnesecchi, lead us to conclude that these are the original families of our city. Family ADIMARI Family BARGI from Gangalandi Family BERNARDI Family BERTALDI Family BERTI SIGNESI Family BERTO END Family BOCCACCI Family BRUCIANESI Family EXCHANGE by SIGNA Family CORSINI Family DANDI of Gangalandi Family BEANS from SIGNA Family FALCUCCI from Gangalandi Family FRANCHI from SIGNA Family FRASCA Family FRESCOBALDI Family LEG by Gangalandi Family GIANI from Gangalandi Family GIUNTINI Family GIUNTINO from SIGNA Family GRILLI Family GUIDUCCI Family from the SLAB Family LOMBARDI from CALCINAIA Family MACCI Family of MARTINI GOLDEN LION Family MAZZINGHI from SIGNA Family MELLINI della Lastra Family MONTUCCI Family MORI UBALDINI Family from PALMIERI Gangalandi Family PANDOLFINI Family PARRETTI Family PERI Family RIDOLFINI from Gangalandi Family ROSSELLI OF TURKISH Family of RED Family RUSTICHI Family SCORES Family SERRICCARDI from SIGNA Family SIGOLI from SIGNA Family SODERINI

The families that originate from the town of Signa - Leggi il resto

Why the wealthy nobles of the territory moved to Florence, remain the owners of their land in the countryside of Signa?

The wealth that trade and the existence of a river port connected to the sea, carrying certainly money that were invested. The city of Florence at that time, which has become the center of power under its forms, was the ideal place to invest. Hence the purchase of land to construct buildings more or less large, the transfer of money into the coffers of the nascent banks, the possibility of forms of knowledge for new customers. Hence the participation in the construction of new churches from which to get the patronage to antagonize the Church, in short, a dizzying exchange of money which in part is not frowned upon by pure Florentine, but money has a twinkle detail that makes each eye close . And the suburbs of Florence, with its noble families joined fully in the city of Florence. But beware, the nobles of the county, and in particular those of Signa, do not leave the territory abandoned; their homes, villas, castles, land, ports, navalestri are there to continue to acquire money. Only the wars between Guelphs and Ghibellines means that some property name changes, that some families are sent into exile with the appropriation of their property, that some families they move permanently to locations outside of Tuscany. Moreover, the subsequent war with the final defeat of the Ghibellines does almost everything back to the previous situation. The families of the County thus acquire the right to be considered definitive, in all respects, Florence and hence the rise to power with Priories and Gonfalonierati.

Why the wealthy nobles of the territory moved to Florence, remain the owners of their land in the countryside of Signa? - Leggi il resto

How did the construction of a bridge over the Arno?

Before addressing this topic is necessary to preface what situation we had at the end of 1150 as part of the territory of the Municipality of Signa. The Plover Signa included the following churches are part of the left side of the river (following current): St. John the Baptist San Lorenzo Santa Maria in Castle San Miniato with the adjoining St. Mommè (now St. Rocco) detached from the people of Luciano (XIII century) San Pietro a Lecore Sant'Angelo a Lecore with the annex of San Biagio San Mauro in San Moro From the right side of the river there were the following churches: San Martino in Gangalandi, with annexes of San Mariano in Celativo and San Michele in Mont'Orlandi; Santa Maria in Lamole or Brucianesi (over the road along the Gonfolina Director); Santo Stefano in Calcutta; San Vito and Modesto in San Fior di Selva (Malmantile with the adjoining St. Miche Luciano It 'clear that a plover, which is also perfectly modeled as a municipality, was in need of a bridge, the river crossing was done with small boats (which still had a cost or tax), which in winter were great difficulties for the crossing to the impetuosity of the currents. A bridge so it has always been necessary for the communication of the two parts of the same town and it seems that this decision to build said bridge has been taken under the pressure of Sant'Alluccio, which favored the pilgrims who need to cross the bridge, which was built in wood in 1120. Unfortunately impetuous flood destroyed and was rebuilt in 1225. Carocci says: "Where there since the XII century the only bridge between Florence and Pisa crossed the Arno River, at the point where they would stop many important streets, the castle of Signa, planted on the hill that dominated the confluence of the Bisenzio in the Arno was considered as a bastion of guard and defense of the Florentine territory and at the same time as the site of one of the most significant markets of Tuscany, because here were stopping goods by river or air best practicable were heading to Florence. That bridge, which was the first origin of the development of this castle, shot down by the Militia, was rebuilt in 1225 especially for the influence exerted by a famous pilgrim hospice and Pescia, I am referring to the Blessed One, who was anxious above all to safeguard the life the many pilgrims, who then roamed Italy, from the dangers to which they were affected to cross having the 'Arno in times of full barges, torn out of scruffy stepping-stones timber. And the medieval bridge of Signa, as amended several times and expanded, is precisely the same one that still connects the capitals of the two municipalities of Lastra and Signa. Signa, made strong by the Florentines, mostly because he could oppose the invasions of the Pisani, suffered for Castracane, leader of the work of these the most disastrous events and Castruccio militia of that Republic, angry about the resistance found in the defenders of the castle, he dismantled in 1325 the walls, the inhabitants abandoned the horrors of pillage and even broke the bridge over the Arno. " Without detracting from the Carocci is only necessary to point out that Sant'Alludo does not exist or that if he was wrong with Sant'Alluccio the latter died October 23, 1134. Everything else you say is true and finally the bridge was finally rebuilt in 1327, then there were renovations in the fifteenth century by eliminating some arcs to allow the passage of small boats to larger and finally the last interventions were carried out in 1822. Our conclusion on this issue is very simple: the bridge was built to the stringent need to connect the two sides of the Arno and the story of Sant'Alluccio is true, but that did not affect the decision taken previously.

How did the construction of a bridge over the Arno? - Leggi il resto

When did the City of Gangalandi? And what of Lastra?

Domenico Maria Manni, in one of his Tomi on Ancient Seals writes among other things: "I am now thinking over this Seal, I will consider the meantime, the structure of the bridge, an undertaking of the City of Signa, taking this as a harbinger of a My observations on Gamurrini where he thinks the Family de 'Pandolfini, and in particular where he goes Signa describing how the material (which he for formal note), she ruled that the use of the Roman Republic with two consuls, and persevered in this government until 1253, according to which he himself shows, and that was important for its inhabitants very clear. This preposition underlined and marked think is wrong, if it were to or from it would still be wrong and we find ourselves in agreement with highs Gamurrini that is not trusted. Ser Pandolfino, son of the founder of the family Pandolfini, in 1252 we find him Member of the Council of Elders of the City of Signa, and this makes us say what was said in the previous paragraph. It 'clear that a plover, which is also perfectly modeled as a municipality, was in need of a bridge, the river crossing was done with small boats (which still had a cost or tax), which in winter were great difficulties for the crossing to the impetuosity of the currents. A bridge so it has always been necessary for the communication of the two parts of the same town and it seems that this decision to build said bridge has been taken under the pressure of Sant'Alluccio, which favored the pilgrims who need to cross the bridge, which was built in wood in 1120. Unfortunately impetuous flood destroyed and was rebuilt in 1225. We can therefore assume that the town of Signa with all its territory, was born about the beginning of the 'XI century. The question that still need to answer is: they were born the municipalities of Gangalandi later became the City of Lastra? To begin to test these births is necessary to establish what it means to common comunello, League, we take the statements taken from the vocabulary ZANICHELLI: Municipality From Zingarelli, vocabulary of the Italian language - Freeman Municipality - City, in the XII-XIV, straight with its own government, under a mayor. Community From Zingarelli, vocabulary of the Italian language - Freeman Community - common. Comunello From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia The common cause is state-owned land under concession to residents for basic needs. Coincide with old subdivisions Former municipalities over the centuries and aggregates in the municipalities more. Domains are managed at a fraction, with the civic uses generally attributed only to the original inhabitants of a village. Their origin is most often indicated from time immemorial, the residue of an era, such as the early Middle Ages in which collective ownership was the rule, not the exception. Even when the sovereign distributed to their vassals the fiefs, the inhabitants of the individual villages retained certain rights on state-owned land, variously named in different places. From Zingarelli, vocabulary of the Italian language - Freeman Comunello - small rural municipality - share of a joint. League From Zingarelli, vocabulary of the Italian language - Freeman League - union of two or more states, or common cause, for defense, offense or other. Podesta From Zingarelli, vocabulary of the Italian language - Freeman Podesta - ancient town, headed by a mayor These guidelines are important because many historians new and old tend to confuse a Comunello and / or League with the City. As we have seen the difference is substantial. THE TOWN OF SIGNA In the early Middle Ages usually was made to coincide with the territory Plover, which in our case was divided into 9 parishes for a total of 14 churches. From the old catalog then the churches of the diocese of Florence, compiled on the end of the thirteenth century is that then the parish of Signa included, besides the people of the church of San Giovanni and San Lorenzo, currently 14 parishes gathered in nine treatments, that is, S. Mary Castle Signa; S. Maria Lamole, or Brucianese (over the road along the Golfolina Director); S. Martin in Gangalandi, Provost, with the outbuildings of S. Mariano in Celatico and S. Michele in Mont'Oriandi; S. Mauro S. Moro in Signa; S. Illumination Signa with the adjoining St. Mommè, (now St. Roch), detached from the people of Luciano; S. Peter Lecore; S. Angel Lecore with the adjoining St. Biagio; S. Stefano in Calcinaja; SS. Vito and Modesto in Fior di Selva (Malmantile) with the adjoining St. Michael Luciano. Many of these peoples, such as those of Lamole and, Gangalandi of Celatico of Mont'Orlandi of Calcinaja and Luciano, being located on the side of the Arno opposite to that of the parish church, prove that originally the jurisdiction of Cotesta church embraced the one and the other bank of the river, and that the civil jurisdiction of Signa, being able to shape up the ecclesiastical discourse in the country, has for many centuries considered the capital of the entire area due to the 14 nations mentioned above. The Articles of Association do not find most of 1533 this subdivision and this suggests that the City of Gangalandi took the legal form of the City in that year. We back support what is written: The first information on the keeping and retention of the cards of the town of Gangalandi (later Lastra), are found in the statutes of 1563. The figure of the chancellor appears there, here as in other municipalities, as a producer and custodian of the various registers Soon enough, however, the community lost one of its Registrar and helped himself to Empoli. All the cards were transferred to the seat of the Court, together with those of the League of Gangalandi and with those established by the judicial acts of the mayor of Montelupo and Lastra. The different "inventories of books and strings" that the clerks were required to complete the hand-over to their successor offer valuable, even if summary, information on the type and the number of archival units stored at Empoli. 2. A general reorganization of the government of the communities of the Florentine countryside (which was also included in the slab) came with the motu proprio of Pietro Leopoldo of 23 May 1774. The decision followed two years of the first experimental attempts implemented in Volterra and Arezzo. After the judgments particularly positive (and somewhat 'idealized) of nineteenth-century historians as the Capponi and Zobi - for which the reform communicative represented "the most vital innovation into internal political by Leopold I was sent to effect" - and after the original interpretation made by Antonio Anzilotti in the first three decades of the twentieth century, on this issue do not have a historical-critical overall. As recently noted "historiography is unanimous in judging the reform comunitativa one of the highest points of the achievements Leopold, it remains almost completely clarify how it was prepared, such as the background and the theoretical inspiration that informed her, which the political significance of such a realization, which finally results, beyond the intentions regulations, and changes made over previous systems. " All'Anzilotti municipal reforms Tuscan appears as the solution of a secular historical problem, that of the balance between town and country, a process that marks "the sunset state citizen" and the emergence of the modern state, characterized, first of all, from the need to establish "tax unit" among the subjects also in order to increase and consolidate the public revenue. To ensure a fair distribution of taxes across municipalities, "regardless of any abstract system of organization of the state", it gives a form of representation that gives voice "to the collective interests hitherto neglected or forgotten by the dominant classes citizens." In the minds dell'Anzilotti who followed closely by the thought of the director Leopold Francesco Maria Gianni, this historical process leaning towards the unification of economic, fiscal and administrative management of the territory was in direct relationship with the Grand Ducal project to launch a modern constitution. As generally observed Nicola Rapoport "... it would be wrong to emphasize this trend toward the modernization of the state as a linear process, which eliminates all of a sudden and without contrasts the antitheses that these changes undoubtedly entail." Some local checks have, in fact, emphasized that Peter Leopold "in fact, it succeeded in creating a totally new arrangement, but had to seek a compromise - quite tiring - between the ancient institutions, die hard, and instances of his Enlightenment program of radical intervention in every area of social life. " The Diaz had already observed, moreover, that the development of the reform comunitativa "shows occasional causes that often promoted the starts, the vacillations and fluctuations with which it was carried in its gradual extension to the various municipalities of the Grand Duchy." You can distinguish different forms of resistance encountered by the ministerial team Leopoldina implementation of the reform of local governments. Very different is the case of rural communities (such as Lastra) where the traditional system of representation was rather plain and where the only requirement to be elected was the residence in the municipality, and that, instead, the urban community and the most populous and economically more important, where he had long since consolidated the power of small groups or aristocrats who invoked special privileges for the emerging class of "citizens." In the latter case, it is clear, as he asserted Marrara, that "the claim of a uniform legal framework had to come to terms with the practical impossibility of erasing with a wet sponge centuries of history, interwoven with privileges and particularism often exaggerated. " In the case of the communities of the Florentine countryside (and Lastra in particular) it was possible to observe a significant "regulatory uniformity" and a certain "width in the bestowal of political rights." First of all, they proceeded bundling the "peoples" that once belonged to the ancient community of Lastra (S. Maria in Lamole, S. Stefano in Calcinala, S. Stefano at Busche, S. Piero in Selva, S. Martino in Gangalandi) to those of the oldest alloy Gangalandi (S. Maria in Pulica, S. Martino in Carcheri, S. Andrea in Castratica, S. Maria in Marliano, S. Donato in Misciano, S. Piero a Nebbiaccoli, St. Bartholomew in Bracciatica) which, all together, they came to "constitute the entire territory of the new Community of the plate." The government was headed by a Magistrate of the Community, consisting of a standard-bearer, and four representatives, and the General Council, composed of the "residents" in the said Magistrate and many many deputies were the "peoples" of the Community. The members of the Judiciary and the Council were to be elected by ballot by two bags. In the bag of the Magistrate could be included coupons with the names of all those who had a lot of real estate in the territory of the community that contributes to the Treasury "in proportion to a florin for a tenth of decimino or lyre." In this way introduce an innovative arrangement, because the right to reside in the Magistrate was completely disengaged from belonging to certain noble orders of chivalry or institutes (such as the Order of the Knights of St. Stephen) and uniquely anchored to the parameter of the census according to the principle that to administer the Community had to be called only those who had actual interests. Consequently, it is ensured, for the first time, the access of non-resident owners to local government bodies. We can therefore assume that the City of Gangalandi was born around 1533 with its own statutes and included the fraction of Lastra a Signa, while the latter became a Municipality with the Leopoldine reforms of 1783 incorporating all the villages on the left bank of the Arno, where up to Camaioni became the City of Montelupo, including the City of Gangalandi. As explained so far it seems correct to emphasize that the history of Signa, in agreement with all of its territory (including the current Lastra a Signa and San Martino in Gangalandi) arrive until 1533, and only after that date, its territory is limited to the right side of the Arno. We would like to point out how the City of Lastra is linked to the capital by adding 'a Signa', that the saying "Signe", although written by well-known historians, is not reflected to any particular fact and is just a way of saying; the capital of the territory was Signa.

When did the City of Gangalandi? And what of Lastra? - Leggi il resto

Why the wealthy nobles of Florence came to buy land there and built a Signa Villas.

As the nobles of the county of Signa they moved to Florence to invest their money, some Florentine families also began to build a Signa, especially country houses where you can spend the summer (which was started in May and ended in month of September). Not only was this the motivation, the need to have a landing in the port became a key point for not fully dependent families of Signa. And no doubt that in this context there will be exchanges of favor, weddings driven, envy and jealousy, but this was the modus vivendi of that period. Strozzi, Vespucci, the Medici, the Picts, the Antinori, the the ball, the Mazzinghi, the Gondi, the Salviati, and many others will buy land and build houses in our area, some of which are still existing or recently finished a yield. Finally, as emphasized by the Florentines tenessero at that strategic port. In fact, after the onslaught of Castruccio in 1325 and Visconti in 1397, at the expense of the Florentines, the castle of Signa is fortified and built what is the present city Lastra a Signa (do not forget that at that time there was only the town of Signa ), to defend both the port that the most important communication roads of the city.

Why the wealthy nobles of Florence came to buy land there and built a Signa Villas. - Leggi il resto

What are the colors of the city of Signa?

We think this simple question no one can answer with accuracy and knowledge of the facts. Tradition has it that today the yellow and blue are the colors that symbolize the city of Signa. But are those real? Some doubt arises. The Football Club 1914 Signa has chosen them as symbolic colors related, most likely to the local traditions. We think that the actual colors that have represented the town of Signa since the tenth century were the Gold, the Sky and red. From what we gather? The seal of the city of Signa, described by Domenico Maria Manni, states that the lilies are gold on a blue field. This is dated 1326. Before that time, we take the arms of the most influential families that came from our city, or have started their business: Adimari Truncated gold and blue. Bertaldi Pale: 1st azure an eagle of gold rising from the partition on the 2 ° palate of six pieces of gold and red. Berto End D'Azure a lion head gold lampassata of red, accompanied by three eight-pointed stars. Bernardi Scaccato of ... and .... The tray Golden, two piles of blue, azure charged with the head of an eagle rising gold. Boccacci On the blue eagle from the flight down to the band of gold and decreased crossing red. Brucianesi D'azure three golden fish-swimming over one another, accompanied in chief by a eight-pointed star of the same. Guiducci Party: in the 1st vaio, in the 2nd scaccato of red and gold. Mori Ubaldini On the blue, the mountain peaks of six gold surmounted by two hammers decussati the same, all lowered below the head of azure charged of a massacre of silver stag, topped with a round shield of the Florentine People. Pandolfini D'azure three dolphins gold-swimming on one another. As you can see the predominance of gold and blue colors were among the favorite colors of signesi from the tenth century onwards. But let's see now, following the suggestions of heraldry, what meaning was given to these colors: GOLD And 'the more noble metal. It indicates dotting the field of the shield or figures so colorful. It 'a symbol of wealth, command, power. THE BLUE OR BLUE Is indicated by horizontal lines and, being the color of the sky, is the glory, virtue and firmness incorruptible. THE RED It is with vertical lines and, referring to the blood shed in battle, represents the value, the audacity, the nobility and the domain. These colors could definitely add the black and silver, the main colors of the Family Mori Ubaldini And from the Scudetto of Gangalandi Adding these two colors that have the following meaning: BLACK Is indicated by vertical and horizontal lines superimposed. Represents pain, mourning for the death of some distinguished personage of the family, or the dedication to the Prince to death. SILVER With gold is one of the two metals used in heraldry. In the coat of arms drawn in black and white, it indicates leaving the field blank. In heraldry replaces the white in the more shining. It symbolizes purity, innocence, justice and friendship. Well, with all these adjectives the town of Signa is well represented. And going back to our times here that the colors gold, blue-blue, red, silver and black are represented in the coat of arms of the City of Signa, without additions and exclusion of other colors. Coat of arms of the City Signa Description Heraldry Coat of Arms Field of the sky, the bridge of three arches, coming from the sides, the side arches visible only in part, and more meager, founded on the water, in blue, fluttuoso of silver, bridge saw it in perspective, of silver, walled black and sustaining left between the two arches the square tower, Silver, walled in black, perspective view, crenellated battlements Guelph with three angular visible, and with six blackbirds visible, three and three tower it with the door once right, in black, surmounted by the lily of Florence, red, two black-windowed, in the side with no door, all under the head of blue, strewn with golden lilies and loaded by the rake of five teeth, of red, with the only horizontal cross prolonged up to the flaps of the shield, the teeth in places like rake not prolonged Blazon of the Banner Drape white History Presidential Decree 06.02.2003 granting of arms and banner Features Coat of Arms Symbols: Lily, Bridge, Rake, Tower Colors: Silver, Blue, Black, Gold, Red

What are the colors of the city of Signa? - Leggi il resto

What new characters are part of the History of Signa and because we were not aware of?

The research started from what we had available and that is what was reported on the website of the City of Signa. In it is reported in a comprehensive history of the two most important people of this city and that is: The Blessed Giovanna Boncompagno from Signa After that, we highlight the following characters born in Signa, or who have left an important imprint or who have died: Fra 'Morando from Signa, master executor of Giovanni Boccaccio. Don Carlo Michelagnoli, master of Gaetano and Bettino Ricasoli, a member of the Florentine Academy of Georgofili. The sisters Gramatica, chestro theology of the Friars Hermits of St. Augustine, died June 10, 1387, confessor and executor chose the villa as a refuge "The Quarnarina" in Florence, to rest from the fatigue performances, and hosted for long stays Gabriele D 'Annunzio. They are buried with his parents in the Municipal Cemetery of San Miniato in Signa. Giuseppe Garibaldi Monsignor O. Fedi Leopoldo Cattani Cavalcanti Raffaele Brutes Mother Angelica Michelagnoli Giusepe Coin Master of Signa Alimondo Ciampi Joseph Santelli Alvaro Cartei Bruno Catarzi Camillo Ciabilli Raphael Fossi (Rafo) Beyond some substantial errors (Fra Morando was not to be the confessor of Boccaccio, but rather Fra Martino, who is not mentioned), the human eye could see clearly that many people lacked the list. This should not be interpreted as a criticism of the City that, in all probability, did not think to renew part of this site. The Pro Loco, as already mentioned several times, decided to fill this gap by delegating to a Scientific Committee, to retrace, in the can, the story of Signa and extrapolate this to those people who were born, died, or have been during their period, the history of this city. The main intention which prompted us is to report the facts, for reasons exclusively tourist, pointing out that Signa has been at the center of political, economic and cultural city of Florence and, indeed, has contributed its port and the families who lived there at the beginning of the second millennium, in a decisive manner to the construction of the most beautiful city in the world. It is for this reason that it seemed impossible that only those characters were reported and for the same reason we have contributed to research the characters who were born, died, or who have made history and are not reported. The material that came out is impressive both for the history of Signa, for his characters, for the future of tourism that a search of the genre, once posted on the website, it will bring to the city Signa. We know right now that the truth hurts and that there will be detractors, envious, jealous, people in bad faith who will try to tear down what we wanted. But the Pro Loco Signa, beyond constructive criticism that we need, it will respond in kind and with authentic certifications to the criticisms made in bad faith. Moreover, to prevent these criticisms, the research was carried out in the most thorough as possible and is still missing material that deepens some aspects of what we have written, it took a year to develop this research, just as there will take to terminate the labor, then it is to a paper publication (multiple volumes) to better define "a finished work and complete". The Pro Loco di Signa is not a closed, but open to any suggestions, corrections, or other in-depth and then you are all welcome. It's just to emphasize the complete gratuitousness of the work done so far. Thank you and those who worked there thinking of doing the good of the town of Signa. The characters were as follows: - Born in Signa; - Very famous who have spoken or Signa or have lived there; - Not born in Signa; - Families that originate from the town of Signa; - The characters of the Manufacture of Signa; - The characters of the Artisan Village School; - The Notaries and the Judges of Signa in Middle Ages.

What new characters are part of the History of Signa and because we were not aware of? - Leggi il resto

Tourist Information Point

The City of Signa, with the City Council resolution (No. 52/2010), has entrusted the Association Pro Loco Signa, management of Tourist Information Point located in Station Place, at the former waiting room. In the office you can request free information material such as brochures, guides, maps and maps of the town of Signa, and surrounding municipalities. There is also a line WiFi. The information offered to tourists and citizens mainly concern: • The city and territory • The monuments • The natural attractions and artistic • The tourist facilities - accommodation • Transport • The demonstrations, events, cultural events, sports and religious The schedule in effect from February 5 to March 31, 2013 is as follows: Tuesday to Friday: from 15.30 to 19.30 Saturday: from 9.30 to 13.30, Sunday and Monday: closed From Apri 1, 2013 at September 30 is a follows: Tuesday to Friday: from 16.00 to 20.00 Saturday: from 10.00 to 13.00, Sunday and Monday: closed

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Getting around

BY CAR: Coming from Florence: take the SGC FI.PI.LI. direction Pisa, Livorno and exit at Lastra a Signa. Cross Lastra a Signa and follow the road signs for Signa (5 min.) Coming from Livorno, Pisa: take the SGC FI.PI.LI. direction Florence and exit at Lastra a Signa. Cross Lastra a Signa and follow the road signs for Signa (5 min.) For those coming from Bologna, Mugello: Take the A1 motorway towards Florence and exit at "Firenze Scandicci." Follow the direction of Pisa, Livorno, continue on the SGC FI.PI.LI. and exit at Lastra a Signa. Cross Lastra a Signa and follow the road signs for Signa (5 min.) Coming from Rome, Arezzo, Valdarno: Take the A1 motorway towards Florence and exit at "Firenze Scandicci." ". Follow the direction of Pisa, Livorno, continue on the SGC FI.PI.LI. and exit at Lastra a Signa. Cross Lastra a Signa and follow the road signs for Signa (5 min.) Coming from Siena: take the Firenze - Siena. At the end of the highway in the area Firenze Certosa, take the A1 motorway towards Florence and exit at "Firenze Scandicci." Follow the direction of Pisa, Livorno, continue on the SGC FI.PI.LI. and exit at Lastra a Signa. Cross Lastra a Signa and follow the road signs for Signa (5 min.) Coming from Lucca, Montecatini, Pistoia, Prato: take the A11 motorway towards Florence, follow the direction "A1 Bologna Roma" (about 1 km after the exit "Prato Est"), follow the direction of Rome, continue on 'A1 and exit at "Firenze Scandicci." Follow the direction of Pisa Livorno, continue on SGC FI.PI.LI and exit at Lastra a Signa. Cross Lastra a Signa and follow the road signs for Signa (5 min.) BY PLANE: Florence Airport "A. Vespucci "(is about 10km) Pisa airport "G. Galilei "(is about 70km) BY BUS: Afaf & Line S.p.a. Line 72 - The Federiga / Lastra A Signa Fs / Stamina <=> Lastra A Signa Fs / Montelupo Fiorentino / Signa La Pira / Spazzavento Cap - Consortium Bus Pratesi Blue Line - LAM-MT - suburban - connecting Lastra a Signa in Prato (via Comeana) BY TRAIN: The nearest train station is located in Station Place, near the historic center of Signa.

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Oracle of Cecco Santi

Brief history of an ancient tradition Each year, the evening of the last Sunday in June or July 1 takes place in locations Lecore the exhibition of the "Flight of Cecco Saints", a re-enactment that originated when the small fraction of Signa was a thriving and independent village Florentine , a tradition that a Lecore handed down from generation to generation. Cecco Santi is the subject of many legends Tuscany: according to the more reliable it would be a captain who for the love of a woman was accused of treason and thus thrown from a tower, but miraculously survived. The Captain, who for some years in Vinci also undergoes a similar treatment is in accordance with the "ceremonial" of Lecore knocked down from above, but along a trajectory distance: interpreting its glide farmers make predictions about the harvest. The ceremony, which will include games, contests and a parade, eventually turns into a party for food and necessarily so, at the Recreation Club Lecore, you churn out pizzas, buns and the best dishes but they also serve the food from the pots of lord of the place. Until a few years ago the flight of Cecco Santi took place in the picturesque square of Lecore, from a tower Colombaria of the fifteenth century, but then the authorities placed a ban, due to poor structural safety of the building. Today is carried out in the large open space in front of the Recreation Club, thanks to the valuable efforts of hard-working volunteers who each year are reviving the ancient tradition. The Saints, so it is called by old friends, today is embodied by a wooden dummy weighing 80 pounds, decked out as a soldier, and is slid for about 100 meters along a steel cable, until it touches the ground. As soon as this happens, it takes a real assault on the part of those present, because it is said that touching it after the flight to bring good luck. The farmers of the area drew and draw wishes for the crop during the year by the motion more or less regular puppet along the trajectory, a little 'as in Florence for the dove, within the Easter ceremony of the outbreak of the wagon or, even better, the flight of the donkey in Empoli, whose tradition dates back to 1397. But the ceremony could be assimilated to ancestral rites, the oracles of ancient Greece and all those have always been present in any civilization. Curious, if not impressive, that in June 1966, the cable (at the time it was a rope) would break and interrupted abruptly catabasi the Captain, announcing calamity and misfortune to the peasants: in fact, 4 November of that year the bad guys predictions came true, and not just for the farmers ... Numerous documents and volumes attest that Lecore has always celebrated the commemoration of Cecco Saints. It is for example, that already in 1762 (Lechore was a community in itself: only in 1774, together with the community of Signa, in fact, was merged with Fields) a noble Florentine raccomandasse in a letter to his steward, "for the feast of Corpus Christi , because I can not be present, you do a good Cecco Saints. " And the age-old tradition has never been interrupted, not even during the Second World War, because the singular staging also enjoyed the German soldiers. Today we are experiencing a real recovery of all popular traditions, but the inhabitants of this tiny hamlet of Signa are always proud of their Cecco went, even when - especially around the 70s - this kind of celebrations that have become out fashion and mocked as naive or superstitious, seemed destined to disappear. In Tuscany, the ancient folk traditions that today are evoked through events, recall facts which in the past have marked the history of a particular city. It 's the case of the legend of the "Flight of Cecco Saints." According to popular tradition, Cecco Santi was a captain of the army of Vinci, who for the love of a noblewoman betrayed his city and was sentenced to a horrible being thrown from the tower of the Castle of the Counts Guidi, giving him the grace only if for miracle he managed to escape. As a last wish asked to drink a glass of good wine Vinci and ... the miracle happened! Thrown from the tower, Cecco was able to fly up the hill opposite the castle and save. So it was that in that year the farmers had abundant crops of grapes, olives and wheat. This tradition propitiatory relives every year on the last Wednesday of July when you recall the moments in the history of Cecco Saints to the exciting flight from the tower. The betrayal of Cecco According to a tradition so far has never been questioned, the captain Cecco Saints would have been at the head of the garrison, during the first decades of the fourteenth century, had the task of defending the castle of Vinci in the ongoing battles between the Guelphs and Ghibellines in that difficult period of our history. History tells us that Cecco Santi let enticed by the lure of an enemy army commander to whom he had promised, in return for a handsome sum of money, within easy access of the town. But the betrayal did not come to fruition because of the strange maneuvers of the captain suspicious population. Cecco Santi was under arrest, and after a full confession, he was sentenced to a term cruel to be thrown into the void from the castle tower. The current re-enactment does not run through the original script, but is limited to precipitate a puppet in the likeness of the medieval traitor, along a rope, from the highest point of the tower, ending his race in a steep escarpment outside the city walls.

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The Column of Justice is located in Piazza Santa Trinita, and is the highest and most beautiful towns of the columns.

The stem It was donated by Pope Pius IV to Cosimo I and comes from natatio (the pool monumental) the Baths of Caracalla in Rome, carved into a fine granite east: it is the only column that has come down from that integrates monument. It is a large monolithic column high 11.17 meters long and weighing about 50 tons, arrived in Florence after a long journey. The transport Transportation from Rome to the sea was made in the summer of 1562, with men and means of construction of St. Peter, and presented many difficulties especially in the journey lasted over two months, from the spa to the port on the Tiber done at the speed of 120 meters per day. To supervise the transport was Giorgio Vasari, who verified the possibility of loading the boat sent by Cosimo I and probably built for the occasion. After the treatment, probably very complex for loading onto the column, in the winter the boat moves towards Ostia and Civitavecchia, not without many difficulties and then took to the sea, towed by a jail which also had to endure a fight with two Turkish boats, arriving at Livorno in March, 1563. The ride on the Arno, in the second half of April, had to be done with the help of a smaller craft probably prepared for the occasion and had to stop at the Port of Signa, "not to be able to go farther Fiorenza glue scafa" due to the reduced flow of the river. After lengthy preparations under the supervision of Bartolomeo Ammannati, towards the end of July the column harnessed in a bundle of wood called "nice", is towed along the road to Pisa to Florence, with ropes manufactured specially, horses and oxen with the work of about twenty workers. The column arrive in Piazza Santa Trinita September 26, 1563, after over a year of travel. After being altered by Ammannati, was erected in the final location in 1565. Column converge visually Via de 'Tornabuoni, Via delle Terme and Borgo Santi Apostoli, and it dominates the space of the square with a sense of gigantism entirely new to Florence.

The Column of Justice is located in Piazza Santa Trinita, and is the highest and most beautiful towns of the columns. - Leggi il resto

Sosta del Papa

La Sosta del Papa is a small hamlet of Barberino Val d'Elsa, located on the street Via Cassia state just before with the municipal boundary with Poggibonsi. Known locally as the piss of the Pope took the name from a curious and fun fact of daily life that saw, in spite of himself, Pope Pius VII on June 2 1813. It is said that the Pope, during the long journey to Rome back from France where he had been deported by order of Napoleon Bonaparte, were caught in this area by a sudden physiological need. The papal procession went therefore with the utmost speed to a farmhouse of the place, asking the inhabitants to grant the use of the toilets illustrious travelers The rest of the Pontiff was limited to the time necessary to help but the owners of the house, welcomed the resounding and unexpected visit, thought to remember with a plaque remembering the event and also the resort itself took its name. The text of the plaque "Pius VII PONT SUPREME Pei fears of war by Joachim Napoleon on for ladies in Italy to do with party providam the day March 22, 1813 from Rome and for the space of two months while discacciavasi for the Austrian army and the author of the Tuscan undertaken by Napoli drew back Genoa back in the day on June 2 at its headquarters from physical necessity forced this house with his august presence honored. The memorable event wanted to hand down to posterity in this marble Batista Filippo Pandolfini Florentine nobleman. " Batista Filippo Pandolfini comes from the family whose race starts Signa and will continue for many centuries. There are numerous Pandolfini that have made the history of their city, but above all that of Florence.

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Hotel Excelsiolr in florence

The hotel Excelsior in Florence, with lovely views of the Old Bridge and the hills behind it, has been the subject of important restoration. Fine furnishings, antiques, fine tapestries, polychrome marbles, damasks and brocades will go perfectly with the new décor and furnishings. Seven centuries of history are tied at the Excelsior in Florence, or rather, to the site on which it is built. The current hotel was established in 1927 by the merger of two adjacent hotels: the "De la Ville" and I "ltalie." Historical research should therefore cover both the one and the other. We will start from the first, which is the oldest. In 1278, fathers Humiliated, who for 22 years occupied the Convent of All Saints and you fabricated woolen clothes, they get that common in today's Piazza Ognissanti build a "village", a picturesque cluster of houses. It is the land of the "Unicorn Banner" that one of the existing houses on the area where now stands the Excelsior, in 1427 belonged to the family Boccacci of Signa, which, in 1607, took over another great Florentine family of the Gondi. The building of Borgognissanti then move in property Martellini families and caretakers. In 1865 bought by Desiderio Lodomez, which was probably the first to use it as a hotel. In 1884 the hotel "De la Ville" is bought by Anton Charles Antenrieth, whose heirs sell it in 1924 Swiss hotelier Gerardo Kraft. The history of the hotel "ltalie" reveals that originally consisted of two separate buildings. The first, in 1504, it becomes Casa Rucellai, another of the great Florentine families and remains the Rucellai until 1627, when it was bought by Portinari. The adjoining building destined to become part of the hotel, after having belonged to several important Florentine families, was purchased in 1833 by Caroline Bonaparte, sister of the great Napoleon and wife of Joachim Murat, which relies on the reconstruction of the engineer Giuseppe Martelli 'building which takes its current appearance. After the death of Carolina's heirs sold it and in 1862 it became the property of the Proprietor Swiss Joseph Augier. In 1912, another Swiss, Gerardo Kraft became owner. The hotelier, now owner of two hotels contiguous, closed them both in 1925, did make important works of modernization and the connection between the two buildings, and in 1927 he opened them as unique building with the name "Excelsior Italie". In 1958 the hotel "Excelsior Italie" was bought by CIGA HOTELS, that after careful restoration it reopened under the name of "Hotel Excelsior". In 1995, ITT Sheraton incorporates Ciga Hotels and Hotel Excelsior, a jewel of Florence, he joined the prestigious "The Luxury Collection".

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